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Open Access Research article

The outcome of kidney transplants with multiple renal arteries

Cagatay Aydin*, Ibrahim Berber, Gulum Altaca, Bulent Yigit and Izzet Titiz

Author Affiliations

Department of Transplantation, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Uskudar, Istanbul, Turkey

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BMC Surgery 2004, 4:4  doi:10.1186/1471-2482-4-4

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2482/4/4


Received:10 November 2003
Accepted:12 February 2004
Published:12 February 2004

© 2004 Aydin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.

Abstract

Background

The use of grafts with multiple renal arteries has been considered a relative contraindication because of the increased incidence of vascular and urologic complications The aim of this study is to determine whether the kidney grafts with multiple arteries have any adverse effect upon post-transplant graft and patient survival.

Methods

We reviewed the records of 225 adult kidney transplants done consecutively at our institution. Twenty-nine patients (12.8%) had grafts with multiple renal arteries. We analyzed the incidence of post-transplant hypertension and vascular complications, mean creatinine levels, patient and graft survival. In 17 cases reconstruction was done as conjoined anastomosis between two arteries of equal size, and in 6 cases as end-to-side anastomosis of smaller arteries to larger arteries. Multiple anastomoses were performed in 6 cases.

Results

In one patient postoperative bleeding occurred. Mean systolic blood pressures, creatinine levels at first year and last follow-up and complication rates were all in acceptable ranges. There was no significant difference in graft and patient survival between multiple and single renal artery allografts.

Conclusion

Although the kidney grafts with multiple renal arteries have been considered a relative contraindication because of the increased risk of complications, in our study allografts with multiple arteries were used successfully in kidney transplantation.

Background

Although graft and patient survival have significantly improved because of standardization in surgical technique and immunosupressive therapy, grafts with anatomic variants are still challenging problems to the surgeon. Of these variants, multiple renal arteries are the most common. The use of these grafts has been considered a relative contraindication because of the increased incidence of vascular and urologic complications [1]. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the outcome of kidney transplantation using allografts with multiple renal arteries.

Methods

We reviewed the records of 225 adult kidney transplants done consecutively at our institution. Twenty-nine patients (12.8%) had grafts with multiple renal arteries. The surgical management of multiple arteries was variable. In 17 cases reconstruction was done as conjoined anastomosis with two arteries of equal size, and in 6 cases as end-to-side anastomosis of smaller arteries to larger arteries. Multiple anastomoses were performed in 6 cases. All patients recieved standard triple-drug immunosupressive therapy consisting of a calcineurin inhibitor, azathoprine or mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids [2]. We analyzed the incidence of post-transplant hypertension and vascular complications, mean creatinine levels at 1 year and at the last follow-up along with patient and graft survival. Patient and graft survival were compared to recipients with single artery renal allografts (n = 196).

Results

Of the 29 patients who received allografts with multiple renal arteries, the male/female ratio was 24/5. Mean age was 34.7 ± 11.1 years (range: 17–59 years). Twenty-one patients (72.4%) had grafts from living-related donors. Mean follow-up was 53.3 ± 36.9 months (range:18–144 months). Mean creatinine levels at first year and at the last follow-up were 1.98 ± 0.72 mg/dl and 2.79 ± 1.77 mg/dl, respectively. Mean systolic blood pressure at the last follow-up was 142.3 ± 24.8 mmHg (range: 110–200 mmHg). Postoperative bleeding from the anastomosis requiring surgery occured in one patient. There was no other complications including urologic complications (Table 1). One- and 5-year graft survival by life-table analysis was 93% and 78%, and 95% and 73% in multiple and single renal artery allografts, respectively (p = 0.89) (Figure 1). One- and 5-year patient survival by life-table analysis was 93% and 65%, and 96% and 88% in multiple and single renal artery allografts, respectively (p = 0.14) (Figure 2). Graft survival was also analysed between the groups according to the reconstruction technique. One- and 5-year graft survival in patients with conjoined anastomosis, end-to-side anastomosis, and multiple anastomosis was 94% and 75%, 82% and 82%, 100% and 80%, respectively (p = 0.84).

Table 1. Characteristics of the patients who received allografts with multiple renal arteries (n = 29).

Discussion

According to several autopsy series, the incidence of multiple renal arteries ranges between 18% to 30% [3]. The incidence in our patient population with renal transplants was 12.8%. Various techniques have been described for reconstruction of multiple renal arteries [4]. To date, none of the reconstruction techniques has been proven to be superior to the other in reference to complication and graft survival rates [5]. There was no significant differences in graft and patient survival between multiple and single renal artery allografts in our study. We preferred to join the arteries together extracorporeally as a single renal artery to form a common stem if suitable. Among the multiple artery allografts, we could not demonstrate any significant difference in graft survival in patients with various reconstruction techniques. Mean systolic blood pressures, creatinine levels at first year and last follow-up and complication rates were all in acceptable ranges.

Conclusion

Although the kidney grafts with multiple renal arteries have been considered a relative contraindication because of the increased risk of complications, allografts with multiple arteries were used successfully in kidney transplantation in our study.

Competing interests

None declared.

Authors' contributions

CA and IT: designed the study, IB and BY: reviewed the patient records,

GA: performed the statistical analysis.

References

  1. Roza AM, Perloff LJ, Naji A, Grossman RA, Barker CF: Living-related donors with bilateral multiple renal arteries. A twenty-year experience.

    Transplantation 1989, 47(2):397-9. PubMed Abstract OpenURL

  2. Halloran PF: Immunosuppressive agents in clinical trials in transplantation.

    Am J Med Sci 1997, 313(5):283-8. PubMed Abstract OpenURL

  3. Oesterwitz H, Strobelt D: Extracorporeal microsurgical repair of injured multiple donor kidney arteries prior to cadaveric allotransplantation.

    Eur Urol 1985, 11:100-105. PubMed Abstract OpenURL

  4. Makiyama K, Tanabe K, Ishida H, Tokumoto T, Shimmura H, Omoto K, Toma H: Successful renovascular reconstruction for renal allografts with multiple renal arteries.

    Transplantation 2003, 75:828-832. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  5. Ali-El-Dein B, Osman Y, Shokeir AA, Shehab El-Dein AB, Sheashaa H, Ghoneim MA: Multiple arteries in live donor renal transplantation: surgical aspects and outcomes.

    J Urol 2003, 169(6):2013-7. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

Pre-publication history

The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2482/4/4/prepub