Table 1

Risk factor for lymph node metastasis in patients with submucosal invasive colorectal cancer
Lymph node involvement P-value
No (n = 47) Yes (n = 8) Univariate Multivariate
Age Mean ± S.D. 60.8 ± 9.7 64.0 ± 8.9 0.381
Sex male 29 (61.7 %) 5 (62.5 %)
female 18 (38.3 %) 3 (37.5 %) 0.966
Tumor location Rt. Sided colon 6 (12.8 %) 2 (25.0 %)
Lt. Sided colon§ 22 (46.8 %) 4 (50.0 %)
Rectum 19 (40.4 %) 2 (25.0 %) 0.345
Macroscopic shape of Ip 23 (48.9 %) 3 (37.5 %)
tumor Isp 9 (19.1 %) 1 (12.5 %)
Is 12 (25.5 %) 3 (37.5 %) 0.485
Tumor size ≤ 2.3 cm 20 (42.6 %) 5 (62.5 %)
> 2.3 cm 19 (40.4 %) 2 (25.0 %) 0.428
Circumference ratio ≤ 1/4 26 (55.3 %) 6 (75.0 %)
1/4 < or ≤ 2/4 17 (36.2 %) 2 (25.0 %)
2/4 < or ≤ 3/4 1 (2.1 %) 0
> 3/4 0 0 0.375
Depth of invasion (μm) < 1000 1 (2.1 %) 0
1000 ≤ or < 2000 6 (12.8 %) 2 (25.0 %)
2000 ≤ or < 3000 10 (21.3 %) 0
3000 ≤ 23 (48.9 %) 4 (50.0 %) 0.435 0.282
Depth of invasion (by Sm1 12 (25.5 %) 2 (25.0 %)
Kudo’s classification) Sm2 17 (36.2 %) 1 (12.5 %)
Sm3 10 (21.3 %) 3 (37.5 %) 0.364 0.063
Differentiation well 21 (44.7 %) 1 (12.5 %)
moderately 21 (44.7 %) 6 (75.0 %)
poorly 0 0 0.112 0.856
Lymphovascular Absent 37 (78.7 %) 4 (50.0 %)
invasion Present 5 (10.6 %) 2 (25.5 %) 0.206 0.232
Tumor budding Absent 23 (48.9 %) 1 (12.5 %)
Present 15 (31.9 %) 5 (75.0 %) 0.047 0.042
Microacinar structure Absent 29 (61.7 %) 3 (37.5 %)
Present 9 (19.1 %) 3 (37.5 %) 0.179 0.247

† = including cecum, ascending, hepatic flexure, and proximal transverse colon.

‡ = including mid to distal transverse, descending, sigmoid, and rectosigmoid colon.

§ = ratio of the circumference of tumor to luminal circumference.

Kye et al.

Kye et al. BMC Surgery 2012 12:16   doi:10.1186/1471-2482-12-16

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