Figure 4.

The pathways of CO2 insufflation, diffusion, circulation; and elimination during laparoscopy with CO2 pneumoperitoneum and its pathological effects. 1 - CO2 insufflation set up (including CO2 balloon and CO2 insufflator); 2 - increased tension of free CO2 gas (↑pCO2) in the abdominal cavity; 3 - CO2 diffusion into parietal peritoneum tissue (↑↑↑); 4 - passes into capillaries and vessels; 5,6 - CO2 accumulation and circulation in venous (5) and arterial (6) blood; 7 and 8 - circulatory and functional disturbances in parenchimateous organs (liver and kidney); 9 and 10 - cardiovascular and respiratory changes (heart and lungs); 11 - CO2 elimination by physiologic way.

Pismensky et al. BMC Surgery 2011 11:30   doi:10.1186/1471-2482-11-30
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