Table 8

Etiology categories: Agreement among all four observers for 141 adverse occurrences coded by each reviewer.1

    Etiology Code
2

    Category

    Kappa

    p-value


1

Error in diagnosis

0.52

0.0000

4

Failure to act on results

0.33

0.0000

5

Technical error3

0.66

0.0000

6

Error in preparation for operation

0.09

0.0064

7

Error in dose or method of use of a drug

0.21

0.0000

8

Avoidable delay in treatment

0.15

0.0000

9

Inappropriate care

0.06

0.0313

10

Failure to provide indicated prophylactic treatment

0.11

0.0007

11

Inadequate monitoring or follow-up

0.05

0.0738

12

Failure in communication3

0.80

0.0000

13

Equipment failure

0.33

0.0000

14

Other systems failure3

0.85

0.0000

15

Unclassified error

0.01

0.3453

16

Patient disease, expected risk (no error)

0.26

0.0000

17

Patient non-compliance (no error)

0.00

0.5206

18

Disease unrelated to spine surgery (no error)

0.22

0.0000

16, 17, or 18

No error (16, 17, or 18)3

0.61

0.0000


----

Combined (for all categories)

0.35

0.0000


1 Kappa statistic calculated using "kap" command in STATA Version 8 (College Station, TX). Each observation is assumed to be a subject, the number of raters is fixed (4 raters), and more than two outcomes are possible (18 etiology codes).

2 None of the 141 adverse occurrences were assigned etiology codes 2 or 3.

3 These categories show substantial or better agreement, with kappa values = 0.61

Mirza et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:53   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-7-53

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