Table 4

Effects of APT and CBT as compared with CT

Dependent variable

CT mean ± SD

APT mean difference (95% CI)†

CBT mean difference (95% CI)†


RDQ††

11.40 ± 5.25

0.16 (-1.52 to 1.85)

-0.49 (-2.17 to 1.19)

Main complaints††

54.68 ± 21.79

6.65 (-1.96 to 15.26)

1.48 (-7.04 to 9.99)

Current pain††

42.31 ± 25.56

-0.45 (-8.41 to 7.52)

-6.53 (-14.48 to 1.43)

PRI-T††

17.53 ± 10.53

1.23 (-2.51 to 4.97)

-1.71 (-5.45 to 2.03)

BDI

9.07 ± 6.53

-2.13 (-3.84 to -0.42)*

-1.69 (-3.41 to 0.03)

Global improvement††

4.53 ± 1.33

-0.23 (-0.77 to 0.30)

0.20 (-0.33 to 0.73)

Satisfaction$

10th percentile of baseline RDQ (= 9)

64.98 ± 25.30

13.05 (-4.87 to 30.97)

-0.99 (-18.55 to 16.56)

50th percentile of baseline RDQ (= 14)

70.24 ± 25.30

-4.26 (-16.51 to 7.98)

-0.89 (-13.16 to 11.28)

90th percentile of baseline RDQ (= 19)

75.50 ± 25.30

-21.58 (-39.56 to -3.59)*

-0.78 (-19.11 to 17.55)

Walking (m)††

419.33 ± 66.44

-7.80 (-29,60 to 13.99)

-22.83 (-44.72 to -0.93)*

Inversion fast walking (1/sec)

0.11 ± 0.02

-0.003 (-0.010 to 0.004)

0.001 (-0.006 to 0.008)

Inversion sit to stand (1/sec)

0.06 ± 0.02

-0.001 (-0.007 to 0.005)

-0.004 (-0.010 to 0.002)

Loaded forward reach (cm)††

58.70 ± 12.80

0.32 (-5.19 to 5.19)

0.21 (-5.30 to 5.71)

Stair climbing (stairs)

84.50 ± 22.31

-1.42 (-8.37 to 5.53)

-5.67 (-12.58 to 1.25)

Lifting (stages)††

4.87 ± 2.99

0.28 (-0.57 to 1.12)

-0.19 (-1.04 to 0.64)


† Values are the mean difference between this group and the CT. The CT score is the score at post-treatment.

The mean differences and confidence intervals (CIs) and corresponding p-values were estimated adjusting for age, gender, center of treatment, baseline score of outcome measure, duration of functional limitations.

†† Additional correction for relevant prognostic co-variates: RDQ – work status and TSK; Main complaints/Lifting – TSK; Current pain/PRI-T – work status; Global improvement/loaded forward reach – current pain; Walking – radiation and TSK.

$ Data presented for different strata for baseline RDQ, mean/SD for CT estimated by use of regression model. * p < 0.05.

APT = active physical treatment; CBT = cognitive-behavioural treatment; CT = combination treatment. RDQ = Roland Disability Questionnaire; PRI-T = Pain Rating Index Total score; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory.

Smeets et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:5   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-7-5

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