Table 1

Baseline variables for the total population and the four therapy groups (total n = 223)

Variables

APT (n = 53)

CBT (n = 58)

CT (n = 61)

WL (n = 51)


Age (years)

42.68 ± 9.06

42.52 ± 9.67

40.67 ± 10.14

40.55 ± 11.17

Gender (% male)

58.5

41.4

62.3

49.0

Education (%)

low

67.9

62.1

57.4

62.7

middle – high

32.1

37.9

42.6

37.3

Work status (%)

full time

32.1

36.2

24.6

25.5

partial sick leave /disability pension

18.9

24.1

32.8

17.6

full sick leave/disability pension

43.4

31.0

36.1

43.1

no job/retired

5.7

8.6

6.6

13.7

Duration of LBP (months)

56.91 ± 75.86

68.33 ± 74.21

56.13 ± 67.50

43.75 ± 70.82

Duration of functional limitations (months)

28.85 ± 37.43

49.12 ± 61.40

36.90 ± 53.57

23.55 ± 32.76*

Radiation of pain (%)

no radiation

9.4

17.2

13.1

15.7

above knee

35.8

27.6

42.6

41.2

below knee

54.7

55.2

44.3

43.1

Previous back surgery (%)

17.0

10.3

14.8

19.6

Trauma preceding LBP (%)

17.0

19.0

11.5

27.5

Sport activity (BPAQ-sport)

2.07 ± 0.67

2.14 ± 0.78

2.04 ± 0.65

2.10 ± 0.67

Leisure activity (BPAQ-leisure)

2.96 ± 0.69

2.79 ± 0.74

2.84 ± 0.60

2.78 ± 0.67

TSK

39.02 ± 6.52

38.72 ± 6.88

39.69 ± 7.08

37.75 ± 6.97

VO2 max (ml/kg/min)

27.26 ± 6.76

28.23 ± 6.69

30.06 ± 7.88

29.32 ± 7.07

SPSI-NPO

13.37 ± 7.42

13.90 ± 6.29

13.34 ± 7.71

15.10 ± 7.66

RDQ

14.15 ± 3.70

13.74 ± 3.65

13.51 ± 3.92

13.96 ± 3.88

Main complaints

74.52 ± 14.59

74.71 ± 16.19

72.44 ± 17.03

77.42 ± 11.35

Current pain

51.23 ± 26.55

48.84 ± 23.51

45.98 ± 23.95

51.02 ± 25.40

PRI-T

18.34 ± 11.32

17.86 ± 9.94

18.08 ± 9.04

17.37 ± 8.52

BDI

10.38 ± 7.62

10.45 ± 7.06

9.75 ± 6.68

9.78 ± 7.67

Walking (m)

375.37 ± 68.03

385.29 ± 75.36

372.40 ± 88.03

383.48 ± 101.75

Fast walking (sec)

9.92 ± 2.27

10.28 ± 2.40

10.31 ± 2.51

10.02 ± 2.80

Sit to stand (sec)

20.98 ± 7.33

22.62 ± 9.99

21.86 ± 7.65

21.19 ± 8.98

Loaded forward reach (cm)

52.04 ± 12.27*

50.12 ± 14.97*

55.00 ± 11.24*

59.62 ± 13.55*

Stair climbing (number of stairs)

72.02 ± 18.22

75.10 ± 24.76

71.26 ± 21.95

78.35 ± 26.90

Lifting (stages)

4.31 ± 2.58

4.29 ± 3.22

4.16 ± 3.05

4.06 ± 2.64


Values presented as means and standard deviation or percentage

* significant differences between therapy groups (p < 0.05)

APT = active physical treatment; CBT = cognitive-behavioural treatment; CT = combination treatment; WL = waiting list; LBP = low back pain; BPAQ = Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire; TSK = Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia; SPSI-NPO = Social Inventory Problem Solving – Negative Problem Orientation; RDQ = Roland Disability Questionnaire; PRI-T = Pain Raiting Index Total score; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory.

Smeets et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:5   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-7-5

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