Open Access Research article

Prevalence and risk factors for foot and ankle musculoskeletal disorders experienced by nurses

Lloyd F Reed12*, Diana Battistutta2, Jeanine Young34 and Beth Newman25

Author Affiliations

1 School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

2 Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

3 School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia

4 Visiting Professor, Children’s Health Queensland Hospital and Health Services, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

5 School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

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BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014, 15:196  doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-196

Published: 5 June 2014

Abstract

Background

Nurses are at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although the prevalence of MSDs of the lower back, upper limbs, neck and shoulders have been reported previously in nursing, few studies have evaluated MSDs of the foot and ankle. This study evaluated the prevalence of foot and ankle MSDs in nurses and their relation to individual and workplace risk factors.

Methods

A self-administered survey incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was distributed, over a nine-week period, to all eligible nurses (n = 416) working in a paediatric hospital in Brisbane, Australia. The prevalence of MSDs for each of the NMQ body regions was determined. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between activity-limiting foot/ankle MSDs and risk factors related to the individual (age, body mass index, number of existing foot conditions, smoking history, general physical health [SF36 Physical Component Scale], footwear features) or the workplace (level of nursing position, work location, average hours worked, hours worked in previous week, time since last break from work).

Results

A 73% response rate was achieved with 304 nurses completing surveys, of whom 276 were females (91%). Mean age of the nurses was 37 years (±10), younger than the state average of 43 years. Foot/ankle MSDs were the most prevalent conditions experienced by nurses during the preceding seven days (43.8%, 95% CI 38.2-49.4%), the second most prevalent MSDs to impair physical activity (16.7%, 95% CI 13.0-21.3%), and the third most prevalent MSD, after lower-back and neck problems, during the preceding 12 months (55.3%, 95% CI 49.6-60.7%). Of the nurse and work characteristics investigated, obesity, poor general physical health, existing foot conditions and working in the intensive care unit emerged as statistically significant (p < 0.05) independent risk factors for activity-limiting foot/ankle MSDs.

Conclusions

Foot/ankle MSDs are common in paediatric hospital nurses and resulted in physical activity limitations in one out of every six nurses. We recommend targeted education programs regarding the prevention, self-management and treatment strategies for foot/ankle MSDs. Further research is needed into the impact of work location and extended shift durations on foot/ankle MSDs.