Effect size: changes induced by orthopaedic shoes. Black circles are the standardized effect size (Hedges’s g). Horizontal lines are the 95% confidence intervals, computed as ±1.96 times the Standard Error. The arbitrary limit of 0.5 (vertical dotted line) corresponds to a medium effect as defined by Cohen. Dynamic stability is defined as the logarithmic rate of divergence (finite time Lyapunov exponent, λ*). ML, V and AP stand for Medio-Lateral, Vertical and Antero-Posterior accelerations, i.e. the 3 axes of trunk acceleration as measured by the triaxial accelerometer.
Terrier et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013 14:94 doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-94