Table 1

Potential predictors of hospitalisation for Herniated lumbar disc disease during the period 1977–2003 among 3,833 men without history of any back disease at baseline in 1970–71
Herniated lumbar disc disease, n (%) Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)
Physical fitness (VO2Max)
 Low, - 32 (n= 2055) 34 (1.7%) 1 (reference)
 High, 33 + (n= 1778) 30 (1.7%) 0.85 (0.51-1.40)
Ergonomic load to the back
 Low (n=3,073) 47 (1.5%) 1 (reference)
 Medium (n=582) 13 (2.2%) 1.54 (0.83-2.84)
 High (n = 79) 3 (3.8%) 2.80 (0.87-9.0)
Strenuous work
 Seldom/never (n = 2,328) 26 (1.1%) 1 (reference)
 Occasionally (n= 1,186) 26 (2.2%) 2.09 (1.21-3.61)
 Often (n= 247) 10 (4.0%) 3.95 (1.90-8.20)
Leisure time physical activity
 Low (n= 647) 13 (2.0%) 1 (reference)
 Medium (n = 2,710) 43 (1.6%) 0.72 (0.38-1.33)
 High (n = 365) 7 (1.9%) 0.78 (0.31-1.97)
Social class
 I (n = 676) 8 (1.2%) 1 (reference)
 II (n = 395) 5 (1.3%) 1.06 (0.34-3.24)
 III (n = 717) 13 (1.8%) 1.58 (0.65-3.82)
 IV (n = 1,542) 28 (1.8%) 1.57 (0.71-3.46)
 V (n = 497) 10 (2.0%) 2.22 (0.87-5.65)
Height, cm
 - 171 (n = 1,283) 12 (0.9%) 1 (reference)
 172-177 (n = 1,355) 29 (2.1%) 2.06 (1.05-4.05)
 178 + (n = 1,186) 21 (1.8%) 1.60 (0.78-3.26)
Weight, kg
 - 72 (n = 1,282) 14 (1.1%) 1 (reference)
 73-80 (n = 1,278) 21 (1.6%) 1.51 (0.77-2.98)
 81 + (n = 1,271) 29 (2.3%) 2.15 (1.13-4.07)
BMI, kg*m –2
 - 25 (n = 1,858) 28 (1.5%) 1 (reference)
 > 25–29.9 (n = 1,712) 31 (1.8%) 1.30 (0.78-2.17)
 30 + (n = 250) 3 (1.2%) 0.95 (0.28-3.12)
Under mental stress at work
 Seldom (n = 3,002) 54 (1.8%) 1 (reference)
 Regularly (n = 821) 10 (1.2%) 0.64 (0.32-1.26)
Under mental stress in leisure time
 Seldom (n = 3,574) 62 (1.7%) 1 (reference)
 Regularly (n= 249) 2 (0.8%) 0.47 (0.11-1.94)
Use of sedatives
 Never (n = 2,998) 51 (1.7%) 1 (reference)
 Regularly/occasionally (n=827) 13 (1.6%) 1.08 (0.58-2.00)
Smoking
 Current (n = 2798) 41 (1.5%) 1 (reference)
 Previously (n = 705) 17 (2.4%) 1.43 (0.56-3.63)
 Never (n = 328) 6 (1.8%) 0.95 (0.40-2.23)
Daily alcohol use, beverages
 0 (n = 1,271) 21 (1.7%) 1 (reference)
 1-2 (n = 1,815) 32 (1.8%) 1.08 (0.62-1.87)
 3-5 (n = 611) 9 (1.5%) 1.03 (0.47-2-26)
 >= 6 (n = 123) 2 (1.6%) 1.22 (0.28-5.21)

Adjusted for age only. Significant associations (p < 0.05) are highlighted (bold). HR = hazard ratio; CI = confidence interval.

Jørgensen et al.

Jørgensen et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013 14:86   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-86

Open Data