Table 1

Characteristics of included studies
Papers (8) Groups (16) Study design Objetive Sample Treatments
Ahlqwist et al., 2008 [30] a Randomized controlled trial To evaluate how 2 different treatment options affect perception of health, pain, and physical functioning over time among children and 0061dolescents with LBP E1:23* E1: back exercise program [(individualized physical therapy + exercise + self- training); (once a week, 12 weeks)] + back education + home exercise program (12 weeks; twice a week)
Age: 15 (13–18)
b E2:22* E2: self-training back exercise program (1-week; 3 times a weeks; 20 mins) + back education + home exercise program (12 weeks; 3 times a week). No individualized therapy
Age: 14 (12–17)
Clifford, 2009 [51] a Prospective longitudinal cohort To examine the clinical utility of the treatment-based classification (TBC) system by comparing treatment outcomes in a sample of children and adolescents with LBP E1:19* E1:Stabilization
Age: 14.9 (12–17)
b E2:11* E2:Mobilization/Manipulation
Age: 14.9 (12–17)
c E3:4* E3: Specific exercise
Age: 14.9 (12–17)
Fanucchi et al., 2009 [31] a Randomized controlled trial To investigate whether exercise is effective in reducing the intensity and three-month prevalence of LBP in 12–13 year old children, compared with a control group E:39* E: 8-week exercise program; 8 classes, 45–60 mins each (10–15 min = educational session; 40–45 mins = exercise session) + home exercise program
Age: 12.21 (12–13)
b C:32* C: without treatment
Age: 12.39 (12–13)
Fernandes et al., 2009 [50] Case series To evaluate the effect of a protocol of manual therapy on pain and lumbar mobility in adolescent athletes with LBP E:18* Protocol of therapy manual. Myofascial technique and stretching. 1 session
Age: (15–17)
Harringe et al., 2007 [47] a Clinical controlled trial To evaluate a specific segmental muscle training program of the lumbar spine in order to prevent and reduce LBP in young teamgym gymnasts E:15* E: Specific muscle control exercises of the lumbar spine - the training program (8 week = week 5–12 of the study period)
Age: 13 (11–16)
b C:4* C: without treatment
Age: 14 (11–16)
Jones et al., 2007 [29] a Randomized controlled trial To evaluate the efficacy of a specific exercise rehabilitation program as a treatment to treat recurrent nonspecific LBP in adolescents E:27* E: 8-week school-based exercise programme; 16 sessions (30 mins; twice a week). Combination of strength, flexibility, and aerobic exercises + home-based exercise
Age: 14.6 (14–15)
b C:27* C: without treatment
Age: 14.6 (14–15)
Perich et al., 2011 [49] a Clinical controlled trial To determine whether a multi-dimensional treatment programme was effective in reducing the incidence of LBP and the associated levels of pain and disability in schoolgirl rowers E: 33* E: multidimensional programme [individualised exercise programme basaded on an individual musculoskeletal screening (week 1) + education session conducted by a physiotherapist (week 2) + follow up musculoskeletal screening sessions (weeks 3) + off-water-conditioning programme conducted by a Physical Education teacher (weeks 3–23)]
Age: (14–17)
b C:42* C: without treatment
Age: (14–17)
Thorpe et al., 2009 [48] a Clinical controlled trial To determine the efficacy of a specific physical therapy treatment administered to adolescent female rowers with the aim of decreasing the prevalence of LBP and associated levels of pain and disability E:10* E: education session (1 session) + physical therapy exercise treatment (3 sessions) + physical conditioning program
Age: 13.9 (13–17)
b C:8* C: education session (1 session) + physical conditioning program
Age: 13.8 (13–17)

E: Experimental; C: Control; LBP: Low back pain; * Number of subjects with low back pain in the posttest.

Calvo-Muñoz et al.

Calvo-Muñoz et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013 14:55   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-55

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