Figure 5.

Vascular anatomy at the pleurae. Left Intercostal Arteries (ICAs), which branch directly from the aorta, supply the posterior part of the pleurae along each rib. Pedicle probing may have injured the left ICAs, which run near the vertebrae.

Ogura et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013 14:132   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-132
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