Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of all study participants who were enrolled at baseline and follow-up
Baseline Follow-up
Women with diabetes n= 30 Controls n= 30 Difference between groups p-value Women with diabetes n= 15 Controls n= 22 Difference between groups p-value
Age, years 71.1 (4.8) 70.7 (4.9) 0.816 73.9 (3.6) 72.5 (4.9) 0.324
Caucasian, n (%) 23 (79.3) 30 (100.0) 0.017* 12 (80) 22 (100.0) 0.009*
History of osteoporotic fracturea
 Since age 40 years, n (%) 5 (17.7) 6 (20.0) 0.738 - - -
 Since baseline assessment, n (%) - - - 2 (13.3) 1 (4.5) 0.315
BMI, kg/m2 34.6 (7.6) 27.9 (5.5) <0.001* 36.1 (5.7) 27.9 (4.4) <0.001*
Waist:hip Ratio 0.89 (0.07) 0.83 (0.06) 0.002* 0.90 (0.05) 0.83 (0.06) <0.001*
Body fat percentage, % 40.3 (6.1) 37.2 (6.5) 0.056 41.8 (9.5) 39.1 (4.2) 0.256
Time since menopause, years 22 (7) 22 (8) 0.841 24 (5) 23 (7) 0.656
Number of prescribed medications 6.6 (3.5) 1.9 (2.2) <0.001* 8.1 (3.0) 2.4 (2.5) <0.001*
Age-adjusted Charlson Index 4.3 (1.5) 0.1 (0.6) <0.001* 4.5 (1.2) 0.1 (0.6) <0.001*
Total calcium intake, mg/day 1594 (696) 2062 (590) 0.007* 1679 (890) 2019 (639) 0.697
 Supplemental, mg/day 446 (481) 678 (482) 0.070 377 (480) 603 (427) 0.138
 Dietary, mg/day 1148 (564) 1397 (335) 0.054 1345 (660) 1241 (473) 0.565
Total vitamin D intake, IU/day 806 (622) 1177 (912) 0.073 1316 (828) 1488 (875) 0.562
 Supplemental, IU/day 626 (573) 982 (921) 0.080 993 (822) 1285 (866) 0.308
 Dietary, IU/day 179 (142) 195 (130) 0.644 252 (124) 218 (155) 0.495
Weekly energy expenditure, kcal/week 1984 (2428) 2584 (2203) 0.333 959 (1129) 2255 (1443) 0.005*
TUG Test, seconds 12.8 (4.0) 9.4 (2.7) <0.001* 14.4 (4.4) 10.0 (3.4) <0.001*
TUG test >12 seconds, n (%) 11 (44.0) 4 (13.3) 0.011* 7 (46.6) 2 (9.1) 0.005*
Grip strength, kg 18.8 (4.8) 21.7 (6.3) 0.058 16.3 (5.0) 20.2 (6.1) 0.048*
Bone density measurements
 Lumbar spine, g/cm2 1.07 (0.15) 0.97 (0.19) 0.025* 1.11 (0.15) 0.99 (0.15) 0.022*
 Lumbar spine T-score 0.15 (1.40) -0.61 (1.66) 0.038* 0.47 (1.27) −0.51 (1.34) 0.034*
 Femoral neck, g/cm2 0.73 (0.11) 0.69 (0.09) 0.254 0.73 (0.11) 0.69 (0.09) 0.254
 Femoral neck T-score −1.11 (1.02) 1.40 (0.89) 0.288 −1.14 (0.68) −1.31 (0.88) 0.524
 Total hip, g/cm2 0.87 (0.12) 0.86 (0.11) 0.639 0.88 (0.12) 0.87 (0.10) 0.759
 Total hip T-score −0.58 (0.99) -0.70 (0.95) 0.657 −0.54 (0.72) −0.59 (0.87) 0.853

Values are mean (SD), unless indicated. * indicates significant between-group differences at p-value <0.05.

aAtraumatic osteoporotic fracture includes hip, wrist, spine or proximal humerus fracture.

Abbreviations: body mass index, BMI; timed-up-and-go, TUG.

Pritchard et al.

Pritchard et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013 14:114   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-114

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