Table 3

Changes in primary and secondary outcomes
Variablea Studies (#) ES (#) Participants (#) <a onClick="popup('http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/13/177/mathml/M12','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/13/177/mathml/M12">View MathML</a>(95% CI) Z(p) Q(p) I2 (%) 95% PI
Primary
- Femoral neck 21 28 1632 0.288 (0.102, 0.474) 3.03(0.002)* 90.5(p <0.0001)* 70.1 −0.568, 1.142
- Lumbar spine 21 28 1504 0.179 (−0.003, 0.361) 1.93(0.05)* 77.7(<0.0001)* 65.3 −0.614, 0.972
Secondary
- Ward’s triangle 6 8 252 0.260 (−0.405, 0.613) 0.40(0.69) 28.1(<0.0001)* 75.1 −1.567, 1.775
- Total hip 10 14 734 0.232 (0.073, 0.391) 2.86(0.004)* 17.6(0.18) 26.0 −0.149, 0.613
- Trochanteric 14 21 1085 0.222 (0.107, 0.337) 3.79(<0.0001)* 18.3(0.57) 0 0.099, 0.345
- Intetrochanteric 6 10 399 0.241 (0.058, 0.425) 2.58(0.01)* 8.3(0.50) 0 0.024, 0.458
- Whole body 6 7 246 0.121 (−0.055, 0.298) 1.35(0.18) 2.7(0.85) 0 −0.110, 0.352
- Radius - 1/3 2 4 182 0.048 (−0.329, 0.424) 0.25(0.81) 5.8(0.12) 48.2 −1.365, 1.461
- Radius – mid 2 4 182 0.153 (−0.262, 0.568) 0.72(0.47) 7.0(0.07)** 57.2 −1.496, 1.802
- Radius – ultradistal 2 4 182 0.263 (−0.239, 0.765) 1.03(0.31) 10.1(0.02)* 70.3 −1.886, 2.412
- Aerobic fitness 5 8 198 1.146 (0.31, 1.930) 2.86(0.004)* 47.0(p <0.0001)* 85.1 −1.539, 3.831
- Dynamic balance 4 5 95 1.39 (0.766, 2.014) 4.37(<0.0001)* 18.9(0.001)* 78.9 −0.856, 3.636
- Static balance 5 7 112 0.841 (0.228, 1.454) 2.69(0.007)* 40.9(<0.0001)* 85.3 −1.254, 2.936
- Body weight (kg) 11 17 594 −0.03 (−0.4, 0.4) −0.15(0.88) 13.0(0.67) 0 −0.5, 0.4
- Body mass index (kg/m2) 8 11 511 −0.2 (−0.8, 0.4) −0.69(0.49) 109.9(<0.0001)* 90.9 −2.3, 1.9
- Lean body mass (kg) 7 10 461 0.4 (−0.06, 0.9) 1.72(0.09)** 23.8(0.005)* 62.1 −1.0, 1.9
- Fat mass (kg) 4 6 230 −0.5 (−1.2, 0.2) −1.48(0.14) 11.0(0.05)* 54.6 −2.4, 1.4
- Body fat (%) 5 7 211 −1.7 (−2.8, -0.8) −3.58(<0.0001)* 13.1(0.04)* 54.1 −4.4, 0.8
- Strength (upper body) 7 9 300 2.01 (1.08, 2.95) 4.24(<0.0001)* 97.8(<0.0001)* 97.8 −1.33, 5.36
- Strength (lower body) 9 12 482 1.58 (0.91, 2.24) 4.67(<0.0001)* 120.9(<0.0001)* 90.9 −1.00, 4.10
- Calcium intake (mg) 5 7 319 10.1 (−15.8, 35.9) 0.76(0.45) 0.3(1.0) 0 −23.9, 44.0
- Vitamin D (mcg) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Notes: aUnless noted otherwise, all outcomes are reported as standardized effect size (g); ES, effect size; #, number; Z(p), z-score and alpha value; Q(p), Cochran’s Q statistic and alpha value; I2 (%), I-squared; PI, prediction intervals. *, statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05; **trend for statistical significance (p >0.05 to ≤ 0.10); --, Insufficient data reported (< 3 ES’s).

Kelley et al.

Kelley et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012 13:177   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-177

Open Data