Table 4

Predictors of direct, indirect and total costs including monetarily valued informal care and reduced productivity at work
Parameter Direct costs Standard error Indirect costs Standard error Total costs Standard error
Constant 6,388 869 *** 6,915 635 *** 13,269 1,176 ***
Diagnosis 381 158 * −28 205 371 277
Psychiatric comorbidity 893 352 * 448 327 1,348 549 *
T1 −2,450 166 *** 994 201 *** −1,453 283 ***
T1 x psychiatric comorbidity −564 454 −688 499 −1,242 755
T2 −5,063 192 *** −3,112 282 *** −8,167 368 ***
T2 x psychiatric comorbidity 38 709 1,646 762 * 1,643 1,133
Chronic medical disease 643 191 *** 811 229 *** 1,397 329 ***
Number of previous disc surgeries 548 162 *** 1,197 147 ** 1,755 232 ***
Age (centralized to mean) −9.50 10.30 67 12.40 *** 58 17.69 **
Gender (ref: female) −871 158 *** 2,237 167 *** 1,343 247 ***
Being married 104 181 499 262 594 354
ISCED educational level 3 (ref ≤ 2) −484 711 256 521 −209 972
ISCED educational level 5 (ref ≤ 2) −681 729 −160 550 −829 1,009
Living situation: with partner (ref: alone) −212 269 −100 337 −260 470
Living situation: others (ref: alone) 580 646 689 929 1,333 1,233
Number of children 87 79 −328 90 *** −235 130
Private health insurance (ref: statutory health insurance) −40 165 −740 255 ** −775 326 *
Being not employed (ref: being employed) 691 269 * −7,025 323 *** −6,347 462 ***
Model statistics
R2 within 0.48 0.46 0.53
R2 between 0.33 0.52 0.35
R2 overall 0.41 0.48 0.43

* p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001.

Konnopka et al.

Konnopka et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012 13:165   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-165

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