Table 5

Characteristics of studies investigating plasma levels of cytokines in FMS patients.

Author, yr.

Diagnosis criteria

N patients/controls

a) Material

b) Methods

c) Investigated targets

Results

Modified CEBM

level

NOS

W-MeQS


Wallace, 2001

ACR

56/56

a) serum, PBMC, plasma

b) ELISA

c) IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, sIL-2R, IL-1RA, IFNγ, TNF

In FMS compared to controls:

IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, sIL-2R, IFNγ, TNF: ↔ in sera +PBMC

IL-1RA: ⇑ in serum

IL-8: ⇑ in plasma

IL-1RA, IL-6: ⇑ in PBMC

IL-6: ⇑ in PBMC of patients with disease duration > 2 years.

3d

3

0.5


Bazzichi, 2007

ACR

285/40 (16 rheumatoid arthritis cases, two Sjögren's

syndrome cases, 16 systemic lupus erythematosus cases,

four systemic sclerosis cases, two undifferentiated connective-

tissue disease cases)/100

a) serum, plasma

b) ELISA

c) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF

No intergroup difference for cytokines.

3d

3

0.2


Bazzichi, 2007

ACR

80/45

a) plasma

b) ELISA

c) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF

IL-10, IL-8, TNF: FMS > controls

3c

3

0.9


Togo,

2008

ACR

7/9

a) plasma

b) Beadlyte multi-cytokine assay

c) IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1, TNF

No difference between groups.

3d

2

0.8


Zhang, 2008

ACR

92/69 family members/62 anonymous blood samples from blood bank

a) plasma

b) Cytokine Twenty-Five-Plex Antibody Bead Kit

c) MCP-1, Eotaxin, IP-10, IL-13, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, TNF, IFNα, IFNγ, GM-CSF, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R

Eotaxin and MIP: FMS > controls

3d

3

0.5


Feng,

2009

ACR

100 FMS patients and family members/35 unaffected parents

a) plasma

b) Cytokine Twenty-Five-Plex Antibody Bead Kit

c) Eotaxin, MIP-1α, MCP-1, IP10, IL-12, IL-1β

Rare missense variants of the MEFV gene are associated with risk of FMS and are present in a subset of 15% of FMS patients. This subset had, on average, high levels of plasma IL-1b compared to FMS patients without rare variants, unaffected family members with or without rare variants, and unrelated controls of unknown genotype.

3d

3

0.4


Blanco, 2010

ACR

79/59

a) plasma

b) sandwich enzyme immunoassay kits

c) IL-8, TNF, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, MCP-1

Patients with FMS have lower systemic levels of MCP-2 than controls.

3d

3

0.4


FMS > controls

IL-8: Bazzichi, 2007b; Wallace, 2001

FMS = controls

IL-1β/IL-1: Wallance, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007a and b; Zhang, 2008; Feng, 2009; Togo, 2009

IL-6: Wallance, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007a; Bazzichi, 2007a and b; Zhang, 2008; Togo, 2009

IL-8: Bazzichi, 2007a; Zhang, 2008; Togo, 2009; Blanco, 2010b

TNF: Wallance, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007a; Zhang, 2008; Togo, 2009; Blanco, 2010b

IL-10: Wallace, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007a; Zhang, 2008; Togo, 2009

MCP-1 and IP10: Zhang, 2001;Feng 2009

IL-2: Wallace, 2001; Zhang, 2008

IFNγ: Wallace, 2001; Zhang, 2008

Abbreviations:

ACR: American College of Rheumatology; CEMB: Center of Evidence Based Medicine; ELISA: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; FMS: fibromyalgia syndrome; IL: interleukin; NOS: Newcastle Ottawa Scale; NR: not reported; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; R: receptor; RA: receptor antagonist; W-MeQS: Würzburg Methodological Quality Score; yr: year

Üçeyler et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011 12:245   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-245

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