Table 1

Main characteristics of controlled studies with hypnosis/guided imagery in fibromyalgia syndrome

Author Country Year Setting Referral [Reference]

Mean age (years) Women %

Exclusion criteria

Diagnosis of FMS

Total study population Screened/randomized N (%) Total/Completing therapy N(%)

Treatment group Total/Completing therapy N(%)

Control group Total/Completing therapy N (%)

Outcomes used for metaanalysis


Alvarez

2007

Mexico

University Hospital

Rheumatology clinics

[23]

44 yrs

100% women

100% Mexican mez-stizos

No other significant painful or chronic comorbidities

ACR

50/43

(86)

43/11 (26)

20/7 *

(35)

23/4*

(17)

Pain VAS 0-100 *

Fatigue NA

Sleep NA

Depressed mood NA

HRQOL: FIQ total *

No follow- up


Castel

2009

Spain

University Hospital

Pain clinic

[24]

44 yrs

95% women

100% white

Other severe chronic pain condition; severe psychopathology; moderate cognitive impairment;pending litigation

ACR

18-60 years

At least 6 years education

NR/47

35/32 (91)

17/16

(94)

18/16 (89)

Pain NRS 0-10

Fatigue NA

Sleep NA

Depressed mood NA

HRQOL FIQ total

No follow-up


Grøndhal

2008

Norway

General practice

General practices

[25]

23-54 yrs

75% women

100% white

Organic diseases

Severe psychiatric disorder

Clinical diagnosis of chronic widespread pain

18/16

(89)

16/12 (75)

8/7

(88)

8/5 (63)

Pain NRS 1-7* (a)

Fatigue NRS 1-7 * (a)

Sleep NA

Depressed mood NRS 1-7 * (a)

HRQOL NA

1 year without control


Haanen

1991

Netherlands

Rheumatology department regional hospital

NR

[26]

45 yrs

95% women

NR

Organic diseases

Smythe

Normal blood test

NP

40/37 (93)

20/17

(85)

20/20 (100)

Pain VAS 0-10 **

Sleep VAS 0-10 **

Fatigue VAS 0-10 ***

Depressed mood NA

HRQOL NA

12 weeks


Menziers

2006

USA

University hospital

Physicians and clinics

[27]

50 yrs

98% women

90% white

Inflammatory rheumatic disease

Major communicative disorder

Clinical diagnosis

Age > 18

FIQ-Total > 20

MMSE score > 25

NP

48/NP

24/NR

24/NR

Pain VAS 0-10

Fatigue: NA

Sleep NA

Depressed mood NA

HRQOL FIQ total

4 weeks


Rucco

1995

Italy

Regional hospital

[28]

38 yrs

100% women

NR

Analgesic medication

Major psychiatric disorder

ACR criteria

Normal blood tests

NP

53/35 (66)

26/24

(92)

27/11

(41)

Pain VAS 0-10

Fatigue NA

Sleep VAS 0-10

Depressed mood NA

HRQOL NA

No follow up


Abbreviations: * Data provided on request; (a) adjusted for baseline values; ** Median used for analysis; Standard deviation not reported; calculated from mean of other trials; *** Median not entered into meta-analysis; no calculation of standard deviation from other trials possible

FIQ = Fibromyalgia Impact questionnaire; HRQOL = Health-related quality of life; NA = Not assessed; NP = Not provided on request; NRS = Numeric Rating Scale; VAS = Visual Analogue Scale;

Bernardy et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011 12:133   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-133

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