Table 2

Treatment characteristics and outcome

First Visit

Last Visit

Change (SD); p-value


Maximal traction force (kg)

33.9 (±6.8)

52.4 (±7.7)

Pain, palpation (0-10)

6.2 (±2.2)

1.6 (±2.3)

-4.5 (±2.7), <0.001

Pain, range of motion (0-10)

6.2 (±2.2)

1.6 (±2.3)

-4.5 (±2.7), <0.001

Average disk height (mm)

7.5 (±1.7)

8.8 (±1.7)

1.3 (±0.5), <0.001


Apfel et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010 11:155   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-155

Open Data