Table 3

Properties of the ligaments used in this study [29,41,42]

Ligament

ALL

PLL

LF

ISL

SSL

TL


Elastic modulus (small strain) (MPa)

7.8

10

15

10

8

10

Transition strain (%)

12

11

6.2

14

20

18

Elastic modulus (large strain) (MPa)

20

50

19.5

11.6

15

59

Cross-sectional area (mm2)

53

16

67

26

23

1.8

Length (mm)

13

11

19

13

11

22

Max. failure load (N)

510

384

340

130

200

70


ALL, Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

TL, Transverse Ligament

SSL, SupraSpinous Ligament

PLL, Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

LF, Ligamentum Flavum

ISL, InterSpinous Ligament

Kuo et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010 11:151   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-151

Open Data