Table 4

Demographic associations with stigma, disclosure, and ARV treatment outcome variables.

Expresses Shame-Related HIV Stigma

Willing to Disclose

Would Start ARVs


Adjusted OR

P-value

Adjusted OR

P-value

Adjusted OR

P-value


Urban

1.18

(0.99–1.62)

0.153

0.88

(0.64–1.21)

0.437

0.83

(0.48–1.39)

0.486


Male

1.05

(0.84–1.31)

0.676

0.98

(0.71–1.33)

0.874

0.96

(0.57–1.63)

0.890


Age <32 years

0.96

(0.78–1.19)

0.734

0.72

(0.53–0.98)

0.036*

0.61

(0.35–1.01)

0.062


Some secondary school

0.81

(0.64–1.01)

0.063

0.92

(0.68–1.24)

0.584

1.8

(1.07–3.29)

0.036*


Married or cohabiting

0.91

(0.72–1.16)

0.472

1.17

(0.83–1.63)

0.336

1.11

(0.64–1.89)

0.714


Attends church >1 per week

1.07

(0.86–1.33)

0.554

1.13

(0.83–1.52)

0.428

0.79

(0.45–1.3)

0.378


Catholic (vs. Pentecostal)

0.86

(0.64–1.15)

0.314

0.85

(0.56–1.31)

0.463

1.9

(0.86–5.18)

0.148


Lutheran (vs. Pentecostal)

0.78

(0.58–1.04)

0.093

0.56

(0.36–0.86)

0.009**

1.28

(0.6–2.88)

0.527


OR adjusted for the eight factors shown in the first column. Significance levels of p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001 denoted by *, **, and ***, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals are shown in parentheses.

Zou et al. BMC Public Health 2009 9:75   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-75

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