Table 1

Frequency of overweight (including obesity) and obesity according to potential determinants [% (95% CI)] and odds ratio

Na)

Overweightb) (including obesity) [%]

ORc) for Overweight (95% CI)

Obesityb) [%]

ORc) for Obesity (95% CI)


Personal and social factors


Socio-economic status

Low

3655

26.6

2.12 (1.8–2.4)

8.9

3.76 (3.0–4.7)

Medium

6121

20.3

1.47 (1.3–1.7)

4.7

1.87 (1.4–2.5)

High

3326

14.5

ref.

2.5

ref.

Missing data

348

p-value*

<0.001

<0.001


Migration background

One-parent

920

19.0

1.00 (0.8–1.2)

4.7

1.01 (0.7–1.5)

Two-parent

2031

25.2

1.38 (1.2–1.6)

7.6

1.61 (1.3–2.0)

Non-Migrant

10444

19.7

ref.

4.9

ref.

Missing data

55

p-value*

<0.001

<0.001


Parental overweight at time of interview (biological parents)

Both overweight/obese

2696

32.4

4.92 (4.1–6.0)

10.6

10.2 (6.7–15.3)

Mother overweight/obese

1056

18.5

2.36 (1.8–3.1)

4.4

4.01 (2.4–6.7)

Father overweight/obese

3435

17.5

2.21 (1.8–2.7)

3.6

3.27 (2.1–5.1)

None overweight/obese

2707

8.6

ref.

1.1

ref.

Incomplete datad)

3556

24.4

3.19 (2.6–3.9)

6.5

5.76 (3.7–8.9)

p-value*

<0.001

<0.001


Parental smoking (at time of interview)

Father and mother smoke

2534

27.8

1.91 (1.7–2.2)

8.8

2.46 (1.9–3.1)

Only mother smokese)

1788

24.3

1.52 (1.3–1.8)

6.7

1.76 (1.3–2.4)

Only father smokes

2474

19.7

1.20 (1.1–1.4)

4.8

1.28 (1.0–1.7)

Neither mother nor father smokes

6340

17.0

ref.

3.8

ref.

Missing data

314

p-value*

<0.001

<0.001


Pubertal stage (10–17 years)

Pre-pubertal

904

23.0

ref.

3.9

ref.

Pubertal

1633

23.7

1.16 (0.9–1.5)

5.4

1.60 (0.9–2.8)

Post-pubertal

4497

23.6

1.72 (1.3–2.3)

6.6

2.35 (1.2–4.5)

Not assessed (3–9 years) or missing data

6416

p-value*

<0.001

0.031


SCOFF (11–17 years)

Conspicuous

1436

40.7

3.42 (2.9–4.0)

14.1

4.61 (3.6–5.8)

Inconspicuous

4663

18.0

ref.

3.8

ref.

Not assessed (3–10 years) or missing data

7351

p-value

<0.001

<0.001


Early life factors


Maternal smoking during pregnancy

Yes

2273

27.8

1.68 (1.5–1.9)

8.4

1.93 (1.6–2.4)

No

10724

18.9

ref.

4.6

ref.

Missing data

453

p-value

<0.001

<0.001


Weight gain during pregnancy

Up to 20 kg

10748

19.5

ref.

5.0

ref.

21 kg and more

994

28.3

1.77 (1.5–2.1)

8.5

1.92 (1.4–2.6)

Missing data

1708

p-value

<0.001

<0.001


High birth weight

Yes (>4000 g)

1451

28.4

1.73 (1.5–2.0)

8.4

1.83 (1.5–2.3)

No

11342

19.3

ref.

4.9

ref.

Missing data

657

p-value

<0.001

<0.001


Ever predominantly breastfed

Yes

7999

17.9

ref.

4.2

ref.

No

3977

25.3

1.50 (1.3–1.7)

7.3

1.74 (1.4–2.2)

Missing data

1474

p-value

<0.001

<0.001


Behavioural factors


Sleep duration

Lowest tertile

4451

22.5

1.24 (1.1–1.4)

5.9

1.24 (1.0–1.6)

Middle tertile

4399

19.4

0.94 (0.8–1.1)

5.0

0.90 (0.7–1.1)

Highest tertile

4318

19.6

ref.

4.9

ref.

Missing data

282

p-value*

<0.001

0.01


Media consumption

Lowest tertile

4293

15.6

ref.

3.7

ref.

Middle tertile

4076

20.0

1.34 (1.2–1.5)

4.7

1.24 (1.0–1.6)

Highest tertile

4326

26.1

1.95 (1.7–2.2)

7.3

2.06 (1.6–2.6)

Missing data

755

p-value*

<0.001

<0.001


Physical activity

Lowest tertile

4479

23.1

1.40 (1.2–1.6)

6.4

1.41 (1.1–1.8)

Middle tertile

4364

20.0

1.17 (1.0–1.3)

4.7

1.03 (0.8–1.3)

Highest tertile

4035

18.2

ref.

4.7

ref.

Missing data

572

p-value*

<0.001

<0.01


Intake of energy-providing food and beverages

Lowest tertile

3691

19.4

ref.

4.9

ref.

Middle tertile

3773

20.5

1.08 (0.9–1.2)

4.7

0.95 (0.7–1.2)

Highest tertile

3791

22.5

1.22 (1.1–1.4)

6.4

1.32 (1.1–1.7)

Missing data

2195

p-value*

0.006

0.011


N = 13,450 3- to 17-year olds (after exclusion of underweight participants)

*p for trend

a) unweighted

b) Based on IOTF cut points

c) Odds ratio, adjusted for age and gender

d) Children not living with both biological parents or for which information on the mother's and/or father's BMI is missing

e) Father doesn't smoke or no information on the father available.

Kleiser et al. BMC Public Health 2009 9:46   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-46

Open Data