Table 3

Logistic regression analysis: odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for fear of falling and avoidance of activity for socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial variables

Fear of falling

Avoidance of activity

Mild

Severe

Mild

Severe



OR 95% CI

OR 95% CI

OR 95% CI

OR 95% CI


Socio-demographic

-Age

Reference

1.04 (1.00 – 1.08)

Reference

1.04 (1.00 – 1.09)

-Sex (female)

Reference

2.28 (1.41 – 3.69)

Reference

1.40 (0.89 – 2.19)

-Educational level (low)1

Reference

1.03 (0.68 – 1.56)

--- -------------

--- -----------

-Living alone

Reference

0.87 (0.56 – 1.34)

---- ------------

--- -----------

Health-related

-Activity of daily living2

Reference

1.17 (1.11 – 1.23)

Reference

1.20 (1.14 – 1.27)

-Impaired vision2

Reference

1.08 (0.94 – 1.23)

Reference

1.07 (0.93 – 1.22)

-Impaired hearing2

---- ------------

--- -----------

---- ------------

--- -----------

-Perceived general health (poor/fair)

Reference

1.07 (0.67 – 1.71)

Reference

1.32 (0.82 – 2.14)

-Number of chronic conditions

Reference

0.99 (0.87 – 1.13)

Reference

1.04 (0.91 – 1.19)

-Cognitive functioning3

---- ------------

--- -----------

---- ------------

--- -----------

-One or more falls in previous six months

Reference

1.49 (1.01 – 2.20)

Reference

1.31 (0.89 – 1.95)

Psychosocial

-General self-efficacy3

Reference

0.99 (0.97 – 1.01)

Reference

1.00 (0.98 – 1.02)

-Mastery3

Reference

1.01 (0.96 – 1.06)

Reference

0.97 (0.92 – 1.02)

-Social support interactions3

---- ------------

--- -----------

---- ------------

--- -----------

-Feelings of loneliness (all the time/mostly/often)

Reference

1.26 (0.69 – 2.31)

Reference

0.73 (0.41 – 1.30)

-Feelings of anxiety2

Reference

1.03 (0.98 – 1.10)

Reference

1.05 (0.99 – 1.11)

-Symptoms of depression2

Reference

1.05 (0.98 – 1.13)

Reference

0.96 (0.90 – 1.03)


Note. Only significant demographic, health-related and psychosocial variables from Table 2 were included. Variables were entered simultaneously.

1 Low education refers to elementary school, junior high school or lower vocational level. 2 Higher level refers to poorer functioning. 3 Higher level refers to better functioning

Kempen et al. BMC Public Health 2009 9:170   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-170

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