Table 3

Multinomial logistic regression comparing cocaine only and both opiate and cocaine overdose compared to opiate only overdose deaths among decedents ages 15–64, New York City, 1990–2000*

Cocaine only overdose deaths vs opiate only overdose deaths

Opiate/cocaine overdose deaths vs opiate only overdose deaths

Adjusted model

Adjusted model

Characteristics

OR

95 CI

p-value

OR

95 CI

p-value


Sex

Female

REF

---

---

REF

---

---

Male

0.71

0.62 – 0.82

<0.0001

0.88

0.77 – 1.01

0.0733

Race/ethnicity

White

REF

---

---

REF

---

---

Black

4.73

4.08 – 5.49

<0.0001

1.94

1.71 – 2.21

<0.0001

Hispanic

1.51

1.29 – 1.76

<0.0001

1.20

1.06 – 1.36

0.0035

Age

15–24

REF

---

---

REF

---

---

25–34

1.74

1.27 – 2.37

0.0005

1.41

1.12 – 1.79

0.0040

35–44

1.43

1.05 – 1.94

0.0217

1.11

0.88 – 1.39

0.3891

45–54

1.69

1.23 – 2.32

0.0012

0.88

0.69 – 1.13

0.3318

55–64

2.53

1.70 – 3.75

<0.0001

0.75

0.52 – 1.08

0.1254

Borough of death

Manhattan

REF

---

---

REF

---

---

Bronx

0.93

0.79 – 1.10

0.3915

0.87

0.76 – 1.00

0.0551

Brooklyn

0.80

0.68 – 0.93

0.0033

0.63

0.55 – 0.72

<0.0001

Queens

0.85

0.71 – 1.03

0.0934

0.70

0.60 – 0.82

<0.0001

Staten Island

1.01

0.69 – 1.49

0.9575

0.66

0.47 – 0.93

0.0165

Place of OD episode

Other inside (not residence)

REF

---

---

REF

---

---

Residence

0.92

0.78 – 1.07

0.2830

0.93

0.81 – 1.06

0.2754

Outside

1.34

1.06 – 1.68

0.0127

1.08

0.88 – 1.32

0.4626

Cannabis detected

no

REF

---

---

REF

---

---

yes

0.96

0.77 – 1.21

0.7590

1.25

1.04 – 1.50

0.0161

Alcohol detected

no

REF

---

---

REF

---

---

yes

0.50

0.44 – 0.56

<0.0001

0.89

0.80 – 0.98

0.0221

Year of death

1990

REF

---

---

REF

---

---

1991

1.37

1.00 – 1.87

0.0465

1.17

0.88 – 1.55

0.2790

1992

1.30

0.95 – 1.77

0.0963

1.28

0.97 – 1.68

0.0831

1993

0.98

0.72 – 1.31

0.8726

1.38

1.06 – 1.78

0.0157

1994

1.19

0.89 – 1.60

0.2449

1.38

1.06 – 1.79

0.0161

1995

0.79

0.59 – 1.07

0.1281

1.11

0.86 – 1.44

0.4269

1996

0.97

0.72 – 1.30

0.8246

0.93

0.71 – 1.21

0.5770

1997

0.76

0.56 – 1.03

0.0727

0.73

0.56 – 0.95

0.0210

1998

0.86

0.63 – 1.18

0.3552

1.03

0.78 – 1.35

0.8522

1999

0.78

0.57 – 1.07

0.1178

0.84

0.64 – 1.11

0.2271

2000

0.66

0.49 – 0.91

0.0098

0.81

0.62 – 1.06

0.1276


*analysis restricted to decedents with opiates-only, cocaine only, and both opiates and cocaine detected

Bernstein et al. BMC Public Health 2007 7:31   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-31

Open Data