Table 1

Bivariate associations of cocaine only, opiate only, and both cocaine and opiate overdose deaths among all accidental drug overdose decedents ages 15–64, New York City, 1990–2000*

Total

Cocaine only overdose deaths

Opiate only overdose deaths

Opiate and cocaine overdose deaths

Characteristics

N

%

N

%

p-value

N

%

p-value

N

%

p-value


Total

8774

100.0

2392

27.3

---

2825

32.2

---

3557

40.5

---

Sex

Female

1807

20.6

630

34.9

<0.001

478

26.5

<0.001

699

38.7

0.071

Male

6967

79.4

1762

25.3

2347

33.7

2858

41.0

Race/ethnicity

White

2948

33.6

486

16.5

<0.001

1242

42.1

<0.001

1220

41.4

<0.001

Black

3234

36.9

1348

41.7

671

20.7

1215

37.6

Hispanic

2592

29.5

558

21.5

912

35.2

1122

43.3

Age

15–24

419

4.8

70

16.7

<0.001

170

40.6

<0.001

179

42.7

<0.001

25–34

2369

27.0

573

24.2

704

29.7

1092

46.1

35–44

3788

43.2

977

25.8

1242

32.8

1569

41.4

45–54

1834

20.9

602

32.8

609

33.2

623

34.0

55–64

364

4.1

170

46.7

100

27.5

94

25.8

Borough of death

Manhattan

2798

32.0

769

27.5

0.085

783

28.0

<0.001

1246

44.5

<0.001

Bronx

2110

24.1

579

27.4

641

30.4

890

42.2

Brooklyn

2391

27.3

684

28.6

850

35.5

857

35.8

Queens

1273

14.6

311

24.4

469

36.8

493

38.7

Staten Island

176

2.0

49

27.8

82

46.6

71

40.3

Cannabis detected

no

8076

92.0

2248

27.8

<0.001

2602

32.2

0.880

3226

39.9

<0.001

yes

698

8.0

144

20.6

223

31.9

331

47.4

Alcohol detected

no

5070

57.8

1663

32.8

<0.001

1460

28.8

<0.001

1947

38.4

<0.001

yes

3704

42.2

729

0.2

1365

36.9

1610

43.5

Place of OD episode

Other inside

1122

13.4

257

22.9

<0.001

363

32.4

0.002

502

44.7

0.015

Residence

6359

75.7

1697

26.7

2109

33.2

2553

40.1

Outside

918

10.9

291

31.7

250

27.2

377

41.1

Day of the week

Monday-Thursday

4647

53.0

1306

28.1

0.061

1484

31.9

0.586

1857

40.0

0.240

Friday-Sunday

4127

47.0

1086

26.3

1341

32.5

1700

41.2

Year of death

1990

506

5.8

148

29.2

<0.001

155

30.6

<0.001

203

40.1

<0.001

1991

708

8.1

247

34.9

184

26.0

277

39.1

1992

772

8.8

233

30.2

210

27.2

329

42.6

1993

1014

11.6

241

23.8

288

28.4

485

47.8

1994

994

11.3

283

28.5

266

26.8

445

44.8

1995

979

11.2

231

23.6

317

32.4

431

44.0

1996

852

9.7

250

29.3

290

34.0

312

36.6

1997

806

9.2

219

27.2

314

39.0

273

33.9

1998

737

8.4

193

26.2

251

34.1

293

39.8

1999

651

7.4

169

26.0

247

37.9

235

36.1

2000

755

8.6

178

23.6

303

40.1

274

36.3


*analysis restricted to decedents with opiates-only, cocaine only, and both opiates and cocaine detected

Bernstein et al. BMC Public Health 2007 7:31   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-31

Open Data