Table 1

Selected characteristics, medical history and beliefs of study participants according to exposure category for health effect of oil spill in Karachi, Pakistan 2003

Variables

Exposed group

Control group A

Control group B


n

%

n

%

n

%

Pa


Total

216

100

83

100

101

100

Gender

Female

123

57

50

60

52

52

0.47

Male

93

43

33

40

49

48

Age group (years)

15–30

95

44

20

24

64

63

<0.001

31–50

87

40

26

31

27

27

>50

34

16

37

45

10

10

Mean (SD)

35.5 (14.3)

45.5 (16.4)

31.2 (13.3)

<0.001

Education (years)

0

38

18

10

12

6

6

0.05

1–10

47

22

18

22

13

13

11–12

44

20

17

21

23

23

13–14

48

22

19

23

32

32

>14

39

18

19

23

27

27

Mean (SD)

10.3 (5.5)

12.7 (3.8)

11.0 (5.1)

<0.001

Employment status

Housewife

88

40.7

35

42.2

13

12.9

<0.001

Student

28

13.0

8

9.6

26

25.7

Employed

100

46.3

40

48.2

62

61.4

House on main road

Yes

115

53

18

22

18

18

<0.001

No

101

47

65

78

83

82

Smoking

Yes

36

17

12

14

14

14

0.78

No

180

83

71

86

87

86

Passive smoking

Yes

46

21

15

18

17

17

0.60

No

170

79

68

82

84

83

Allergy to chemicals

Yes

59

27

22

26

17

17

0.12

No

157

73

61

74

84

83

Allergy to dust

Yes

78

36

32

39

26

26

0.12

No

138

64

51

61

75

74

Allergy to pollen

Yes

16

7

6

7

0

0

_

No

200

93

77

93

101

100

Ever had wheezing

Yes

18

8

9

11

5

5

0.33

No

198

92

74

89

96

95

Ever had wheezing with shortness of breath

Yes

13

6

6

7

3

3

0.40

No

203

94

77

93

98

97

Belief that oil fumes can cause illness

Yes

195

90

69

83

94

93

0.28

No

15

7

10

12

5

5

Don't know

6

3

4

5

2

2

Worried about effect of oil spill on health

Yes

168

78

44

53

24

24

<0.001

No

48

22

39

47

77

76

Fumes have affected health

Yes

175

81

19

23

3

3

<0.001

No

41

19

64

77

98

97

Mean number of ill household members (SD)

2.5 (2.2)

0.9 (1.9)

0.3 (0.8)

<0.001


aP, chi-square test comparing proportion between the groups or ANOVA (F test) comparing the means between the groups.

Janjua et al. BMC Public Health 2006 6:84   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-84

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