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Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a minimal psychological intervention to reduce non-severe depression in chronically ill elderly patients: the design of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN92331982]

F Lamers*, CCM Jonkers, H Bosma, JPM Diederiks and JThM van Eijk

Author Affiliations

Maastricht University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health Care Studies, section Medical Sociology, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands

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BMC Public Health 2006, 6:161  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-161

Published: 21 June 2006



Depression is a prevalent disorder in chronically ill elderly persons. It may decrease quality of life, and increase functional disability, medical costs, and healthcare utilisation. Because patients may slip into a downward spiral, early recognition and treatment of depression is important. Depression can be treated with antidepressants or psychological interventions; the latter can also be applied by trained paraprofessionals.

In this paper, we describe the design of the DELTA study (Depression in Elderly with Long-Term Afflictions). The first objective of the DELTA study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a minimal psychological intervention (MPI) to reduce depression in chronically ill elderly patients. The second objective is to evaluate whether a potential effect of the MPI may differ between types of chronic illnesses. The tailor-made intervention is administered by nurses, who are trained in the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy and self-management.


DELTA is a two-armed randomised controlled trial, comparing MPI to usual care. A total number of 180 patients with diabetes mellitus type II (DM) and 180 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who in addition suffer from non-severe depression, will be included in the study. In our study, non-severe depression is defined as having minor depression, mild major depression or moderate major depression. The primary outcome measure is depression using the Beck Depression Inventory. Secondary outcome measures include quality of life, daily functioning, self-efficacy, autonomy, and participation. In the economic evaluation, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios will be calculated. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be carried out.

Analyses will include both univariate and multivariate techniques and according to the intention to treat principle. The economic evaluation will be done from a societal perspective and data of the process evaluation will be analysed using descriptive techniques.


A total number of 361 patients has been included in the study. All interventions have been administered and follow-up data will be complete in September 2006.

Preliminary results from the process evaluation indicate that patients' satisfaction with the intervention is high. If this intervention proves to be effective, implementation of the DELTA intervention is considered and anticipated.