Open Access Research article

Patterns of active and passive smoking, and associated factors, in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) region in Turkey

Ali I Bozkurt1*, Saime Şahinöz2, Birgül Özçırpıcı2, Servet Özgür2, Turgut Şahinöz3, Hamit Acemoğlu4, Günay Saka4, Ali Ceylan4, Yılmaz Palanci4, Ersen İlçin4 and Feridun Akkafa5

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

2 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey

3 Department of Communicable Diseases, Medical Directorate of Gaziantep Province, Gaziantep, Turkey

4 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey

5 Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanlıurfa, Turkey

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Public Health 2006, 6:15  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-15

Published: 25 January 2006



Smoking is an important health threat in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and main factors associated with smoking in persons of 15 years and over, and the frequency of passive smoking in homes in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) Region in Turkey.


A cross sectional design was employed. The sample waschosen by the State Institute of Statistics using a stratified cluster probability sampling method. 1126 houses representing the SEAP Region were visited.

Questionnaires about tobacco smoking and related factors were applied to 2166 women and 1906 men (of 15 years old and above) in their homes. Face-to-face interview methods were employed. Participants were classified as current, ex, and non-smokers. The presence of a regular daily smoker in a house was used as an indication of passive smoking. The chi-square andlogistic regressionanalysis methods were used for the statistical analysis.


The prevalence of smoking, in those of 15 years and over, was 11.8% in women and 49.7% in men. The prevalence of current smokers was higher in urban (34.5 %) than in rural (22.8 %) regions. The mean of total cigarette consumption was 6.5 packs/year in women and 17.9 packs/year in men. There was at least one current smoker in 70.1% of the houses.


Smoking is a serious problem in the South-eastern Anatolian Region. Male gender, middle age, a high level of education and urban residency were most strongly associated with smoking.