Table 4

Results of multilevel analysis for health risk behaviour in Japanese women: odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of individual and regional variables.

Variable

Current smoking (N = 19816)

Excess alcohol consumption (N = 18922)

Physical inactivity (N = 20728)

Poor dietary habits (N = 20728)

Stress (N = 19817)

Non-attendance of check-up (N = 20148)







OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)


Individual

Age (10 years)

0.76

(0.73, 0.79) ***

0.93

(0.87, 1.00)

0.70

(0.65, 0.75)***

0.70

(0.68, 0.73) ***

0.93

(0.90, 0.96) **

0.65

(0.63, 0.68) ***

Marital status

Married

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Single

1.00

(0.89, 1.14)

1.00

(0.82, 1.21)

0.73

(0.65, 0.81) **

1.12

(1.01, 1.24) *

0.73

(0.66, 0.80) ***

0.63

(0.57, 0.70) ***

Widow

1.07

(0.82, 1.40)

0.76

(0.49, 1.19)

1.11

(0.91, 1.35)

1.09

(0.87, 1.36)

0.92

(0.76, 1.11)

0.82

(0.67, 1.02)

Divorced

2.67

(2.30, 3.09) ***

1.68

(1.33, 2.11) ***

1.09

(0.93, 1.27)

1.23

(1.06, 1.42) **

1.16

(1.01, 1.34) *

0.88

(0.76, 1.02)

Occupation a

Housework

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Profession

1.08

(0.92, 1.25)

1.34

(1.06, 1.70) *

1.01

(0.90, 1.14)

1.03

(0.91, 1.17)

1.32

(1.18, 1.47) ***

0.26

(0.24, 0.30) ***

Clerk

0.97

(0.84, 1.12)

1.46

(1.19, 1.80) ***

1.15

(1.03, 1.28) **

1.06

(0.95, 1.19)

1.20

(1.09, 1.33) ***

0.28

(0.25, 0.31) ***

Sales work

1.57

(1.35, 1.82) ***

1.79

(1.42, 2.25) ***

1.11

(0.98, 1.25)

1.43

(1.26, 1.62) ***

1.19

(1.06, 1.34) **

0.48

(0.43, 0.54) ***

Service work

1.58

(1.37, 1.81) ***

1.91

(1.55, 2.36) ***

1.10

(0.98, 1.23)

1.37

(1.22, 1.54) ***

1.14

(1.03, 1.28) *

0.42

(0.37, 0.47) ***

Agriculture

0.70

(0.52, 0.96) *

1.21

(0.79, 1.86)

0.99

(0.81, 1.22)

1.06

(0.85, 1.32)

0.84

(0.70, 1.02)

0.56

(0.46, 0.68) ***

Labour

1.10

(0.94, 1.28)

1.07

(0.83, 1.38)

1.35

(1.20, 1.52) ***

1.38

(1.23, 1.56) ***

1.06

(0.95, 1.18)

0.36

(0.32, 0.40) ***

Others

1.30

(1.13, 1.48) ***

1.34

(1.08, 1.66) ***

1.03

(0.93, 1.15)

1.22

(1.09, 1.36) **

1.06

(0.96, 1.17)

0.53

(0.48, 0.59) ***

Income quintile

5th (highest)

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

4th

1.12

(0.97, 1.29)

0.96

(0.78, 1.17)

1.06

(0.96, 1.17)

1.18

(1.06, 1.32) **

1.06

(0.97, 1.17)

1.21

(1.09, 1.34) ***

3rd

1.34

(1.16, 1.54) **

1.04

(0.85, 1.27)

1.11

(1.00, 1.22) *

1.24

(1.11, 1.39) ***

1.11

(1.01, 1.22) *

1.42

(1.29, 1.58) ***

2nd

1.66

(1.44, 1.90) ***

1.06

(0.86, 1.29)

1.21

(1.09, 1.34) ***

1.32

(1.19, 1.48) ***

1.14

(1.04, 1.26) **

1.75

(1.58, 1.93) ***

1st (lowest)

2.03

(1.76, 2.33) ***

1.28

(1.04, 1.56) *

1.24

(1.12, 1.38) ***

1.64

(1.47, 1.83) ***

1.26

(1.14, 1.39) ***

2.23

(2.01, 2.47) ***

Region

Per capita income (million yen)

1.93

(1.64, 2.28) **

1.49

(1.05, 2.10) *

0.76

(0.64, 0.90) **

1.12

(0.90, 1.40)

1.43

(1.23, 1.67) ***

1.75

(1.13, 2.27) ***

Unemployment (%)

1.08

(0.99, 1.18)

1.10

(1.03, 1.19) *

0.95

(0.92, 0.99) **

1.03

(0.98, 1.08)

1.00

(0.97, 1.04)

1.09

(1.03, 1.15) **

Regional random variance (SE) b

0.118

(0.026) ***

0.043

(0.019) *

0.009

(0.004) *

0.032

(0.009) ***

0.007

(0.004)

0.045

(0.011) ***

-2 log likelihood

13564.2

-2382.9

23140.5

23489.1

26988.4

23946.7

Intra-regional correlation (%)

26.1

11.4

2.6

8.8

2.1

11.8


* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

a Profession = professional and technical workers; clerk = clerical and related workers; agriculture = agriculture, foresty and fishery workers; labour = craftmen, mining, production process and construction workers, and labourers.

b Variance at the regional level in a logit model

Fukuda et al. BMC Public Health 2005 5:53   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-5-53

Open Data