Table 1

The pressures and costs from traffic (composite+car) in the Helsinki metropolitan area.

Pressure

Private cars only

25% composite traffic

50% composite traffic

75% composite traffic

100% composite traffic


Fraction of composite trips without transfer (%)

-

8.7

19.5

28.1

35.0

Vehicles needed (number)

68000

60700

49300

37000

19700

Parking spaces needed (number)

91900

81900

66800

49600

25200

Average vehicle flow on the 30 most busy roads (vehicles/h at 8.00–9.00 AM)

5150

4350

3440

2380

1220

Injuries due to accidents (cases per year)

565 (537–593)

532 (498–566)

483 (425–543)

429 (336–524)

367 (233–504)

Deaths due to accidents (cases per year)

13.0 (9.0–17.5)

12.2 (8.4–16.3)

11.1 (7.52–15.2)

9.89 (6.35–14.0)

8.46 (4.66–12.9)

Deaths due to fine particles (cases per year)

95.4 (0.3–292)

96.7 (0.6–284)

87.6 (0.6–253)

75.8 (0.5–215)

61.0 (0.4–179)

Fine particle (<2.5 μm of diameter) emissions (kg per day)

500 (158–842)

507 (239–774)

459 (258–659)

397 (242–551)

320 (167–473)

Carbon dioxide emissions (ton per day)

1790 (1660–1910)

1580 (1480–1670)

1280 (1210–1350)

953 (907–999)

574 (535–613)

Driver salaries (thousand € per day)

0

599 (422–776)

947 (667–1230)

1260 (888–1630)

1560 (1100–2020)

Vehicle costs (capital+operational) (thousand € per day)

2750 (1930–3930)

2340 (1710–3230)

1820 (1380–2430)

1270 (1030–1590)

667 (582–753)

Time cost due to delay (thousand € per day)

365 (20.7–994)

308 (77.8–664)

233 (73.8–393)

328 (104–553)

424 (134–713)

Average car trip cost to passenger (€ per trip)

2.88 (1.74–4.19)

2.76 (1.65–4.02)

2.66 (1.57–3.94)

2.76 (1.62–4.09)

-

Average composite trip cost to passenger (€ per trip)

-

3.70 (3.00–4.42)

2.91 (2.38–3.43)

2.68 (2.19–3.15)

2.54 (2.08–2.99)


Mean (90% confidence interval when applicable). The number of vehicles and parking places is theoretical and involves the modelled trips only; a car owner may need the car for trips outside Helsinki even if he/she uses composite traffic. The true number of cars in the area was 346 400 in 2001 [14]. Decreased congestion reduces the costs of private cars. This feedback phenomenon is partly taken into account in time costs. The current ticket prices for buses, subway, and trams are 1.70 € per trip in Helsinki and 2.90 € per trip between communities in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Note that the car trip and composite trip costs include time costs due to delay (rush, transfers). If a passenger requires a trip without a transfer, the additional price to him/her will be 3 – 6 € per trip during daytime. This cost is due to reduced efficiency in trip aggregation.

Tuomisto and Tainio BMC Public Health 2005 5:123   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-5-123

Open Data