Table 1

Nonintegrated screening programs in intermediate to high HCV-prevalence countries (>2%)
Program characteristics Program outcomes
First author, year of publication Calendar year of data collection Population Country and HCV prevalence according to CDC[23] Setting of screening Duration of screening program Other tests Pre-screening selection Media activities Screening uptake and anti-HCV prevalence (95% CI) Risk profile of identified HCV cases/Risk factors associated with HCV Follow-up of HCV-infected individuals
Meky et al. 2006 [55] 2002-2005 General population Egypt (6.6%): Two rural villages in the Nile Delta Community health clinic and private clinics for acute cases 29 months HAV, HBV, HEV, CMV, Epstein-Barr Only those with symptoms and ALT levels = > 2 times the upper limit of normal were tested Yes

Scr. uptake: NR

Prevalence: 78.7% (37/47; 95% CI:65.1-88.0*

NR At 2 and 6 months following initial examination, follow-up testing was done to confirm or reclassify the diagnosis (i.e., viral clearance or persistent infection). No data was reported about medical follow-up of chronically infected patients.

Outcomes:

RNA rate: 70.2% (33/37)

Start treatment: NR

SVR: NR

Chen et al. 2007 [58] 1996-2005 General population aged ≥18 yrs Taiwan (2.1% a): throughout the country Outreach community based screening 10 years HBV, ALT, AST No Yes

Scr. uptake: NR

Prevalence: 4.4% (6904/157720; 95% CI: 4.3-4.5)**

NR Patients were requested to return to the collaborating hospitals for subsequent management (results were not reported).

Outcomes:

RNA rate: NR

Start treatment: NR

SVR: NR

Aslam & Aslam 2001 [57] 2000 General population Pakistan (6.6%): Lahore and Gujranwala City screening program NR None No Yes

Scr. uptake: Lahore: 0.01% 488/5063500

Gujranwala: 0.2% (1922/1124800)

Prevalence: Lahore: 16% (78/488; 95% CI:13.0-19.5)

Gujranwala: 23.8% (458/1922; 95% CI: 22.0-25.8)*

Listed risk factors:

- Blood transfusion

- Surgery/dental work

- Multiple factors - Mostly other, non-specified risk factors

Patients were informed about the possibility of eradication of the virus, and treatment in its early stages (further data not provided)

Outcomes:

RNA rate: NR

Start treatment: NR

SVR: NR

Lu et al. 1998 [56] 1994 General population <16 yrs Taiwan (2.1% a): Paisha Township, Penghu Islets Kindergartens and schools 1 month HBV No NR

Scr. uptake: 93.6% (1164/1243)

Prevalence: 0.9% (11/1164; 95% CI: 0.5-1.7) overall*

3–6 yrs: 0%

7–12 yrs: 0.8%

13–15 yrs: 1.9%

Listed risk factors: - Surgery

- Intramuscular injection

- Intravascul ar injection, - Intravascular infusion

All anti-HCV positive children were followed annually for 2 years with upper abdominal sonography, AST, ALT, anti-HCV and HCV RNA. No data was reported about medical follow-up of chronically infected children.

Outcomes:

RNA rate: 27.3% (3/11)

Start treatment: NR

SVR: NR

Note: CI = confidence interval; NR = not reported; IDU = injecting drug use; HCV = hepatitis C virus; HBV = hepatitis B virus; HAV = hepatitis A virus; HEV = hepatitis E virus; CMV = cytomegalovirus; ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; SVR = sustained virological response.

*HCV-antibody prevalence is considered suboptimal (data were collected before 1994 when sensitivity/specificity of tests was not optimal, or reactive HCV-antibody test results were not confirmed by immunoblot).

**The reliability of the reported HCV-antibody prevalence is undecided (data were collected after 1993, but the diagnostic tests are unspecified, or other than described below (see ***), or dried blood spots or oral fluid samples were used).

***HCV-antibody prevalence is considered valid; data were collected after 1993, and reactive HCV-antibody test results were confirmed by second or higher generation immunoblot assays from Ortho, Chiron, Novartis (RIBA), Innogenetics (LiaTek), Pasteur (DECISCAN HCV), Genelabs Diagnostics (HCV BLOT), or Mikrogen (recomBlot HCV IgG 2.0).

aHCV prevalence based on prevalence of country neighbours.

Zuure et al.

Zuure et al. BMC Public Health 2014 14:66   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-66

Open Data