Table 3

Trends over time in public perceptions and behaviors regarding Q fever in the Netherlands (2009, 2010, and 2012)
Survey 1 Survey 2 Survey 3 Trends over time
August 2009: baseline (n = 1347) April 2010: first follow-up (n = 1249) April 2012: second follow-up (n = 1030)a Survey 1 versus 2 Survey 2 versus 3
High score (%)b Mean High score (%)b Mean High score (%)b Mean p-valuec p-valuec
Knowlegde
Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.6 33 2.73 59 3.80 49 3.42 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (−)
Perceived severity [scale 1–5]
 1. “Q fever is a severe disease” 57 3.53 73 3.79 78 3.89 <0.001 (+) 0.04 (+)
 2. “Q fever is very harmful for my health” 53 3.45 63 3.65 67 3.73 <0.001 (+) ns
 3. Severity of getting Q fever coming year 57 3.67 70 3.94 77 4.08 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (+)
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.7 -- 3.55 -- 3.79 -- 3.90 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (+)
Perceived vulnerability [scale 1–5]
 1. Perceived susceptibility for oneself 11 2.63 14 2.67 14 2.67 ns ns
 2. Perceived chance of getting infected coming year 2 2.22 3 2.20 1 2.03 ns <0.001 (−)
Perceived anxiety [scale 1–5]
 1. Worried about Q fever 5 2.17 8 2.36 6 2.16 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (−)
 2. Fear for Q fever 3 2.11 5 2.23 4 2.12 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (−)
 3. Thinking of Q fever 1 1.74 1 1.98 1 1.66 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (−)
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.8 -- 2.01 -- 2.19 -- 1.98 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (−)
Perceived efficacy [scale 1–5]
 1. Practice better hygiene 60 3.57 50 3.31 51 3.34 <0.001 (−) ns
 2. Avoid Q fever affected regions 64 3.64 75 3.92 80 4.10 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (+)
 3. Avoid contact with goats and sheep 81 4.13 85 4.25 84 4.28 <0.001 (+) ns
 4. Do not use raw dairy products 57 3.57 60 3.65 66 3.84 0.04 (+) <0.001 (+)
 5. Wear face mask 24 2.65 30 2.85 45 3.29 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (+)
 6. Move to place without Q fever 17 2.21 31 2.61 42 3.14 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (+)
 7. Seek medical consultation with onset of symptoms 59 3.57 55 3.46 51 3.42 <0.001 (−) ns
 8. Take antibiotics 34 3.01 32 2.93 36 3.11 0.047 (−) <0.001 (+)
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.7 -- 3.29 -- 3.37 -- 3.56 <0.001 (+) <0.001 (+)
Perceived self-efficacyd [scale 1–5]
 1. Practice better hygiene 88 4.32 84 4.22 82 4.21 <0.001 (−) ns
 2. Avoid Q fever affected regions 65 3.72 67 3.77 66 3.77 ns ns
 3. Avoid contact with goats and sheep 83 4.26 85 4.26 83 4.22 ns ns
 4. Do not use raw dairy products 71 3.94 71 3.95 70 3.92 ns ns
 5. Wear face mask 40 3.15 40 3.08 42 3.15 0.04 (−) ns
 6. Move to place without Q fever 9 1.86 12 1.99 13 2.10 0.001 (+) 0.005 (+)
 7. Seek medical consultation with onset of symptoms 81 4.20 76 4.05 75 4.03 <0.001 (−) ns
 8. Take antibiotics 73 3.98 67 3.81 71 3.90 <0.001 (−) ns
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.8 -- 3.68 -- 3.64 -- 3.66 0.02 (−) ns
Intentiond [scale 1–5]
 1. Practice better hygiene 86 4.33 81 4.17 80 4.15 <0.001 (−) ns
 2. Avoid Q fever affected regions 70 3.86 69 3.82 72 3.93 ns 0.01 (+)
 3. Avoid contact with goats and sheep 84 4.29 83 4.24 82 4.22 0.03 (−) ns
 4. Do not use raw dairy products 70 3.97 70 3.93 71 3.95 ns ns
 5. Wear face mask 40 3.10 36 3.00 39 3.10 0.003 (−) 0.04 (+)
 6. Move to place without Q fever 8 1.79 11 1.92 11 2.04 <0.001 (+) 0.003 (+)
 7. Seek medical consultation with onset of symptoms 79 4.17 73 3.98 68 3.89 <0.001 (−) <0.001 (−)
 8. Take antibiotics 68 3.90 63 3.71 61 3.71 <0.001 (−) ns
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.8 -- 3.68 -- 3.60 -- 3.62 <0.001 (−) ns

ns = not statistically significant; a 932 respondents participated in both follow-up surveys (331 of region 1; 350 of region 2; 251 of region 3); b percentage of respondents who scored 4–5 (except for knowledge: percentage of respondents who answered 4 or more out of 7 items correctly); c time trends based on p-values obtained using paired t-tests; d respondents were asked to imagine that governmental health institutes would recommend the preventive measure; ‘(+)’ indicates a significant increase over time p < 0.05; ‘(−)‘ indicates a significant decrease over time p < 0.05.

Bults et al.

Bults et al. BMC Public Health 2014 14:263   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-263

Open Data