Table 2

A comparison of multiplication factors (MFs) for campylobacteriosis in several countries
Country Underestimation MF Primary study type Study Under-ascertainment MF Primary study type Study Underreporting MF Primary study type Study
Austria 15 RTS [74]
Austria 29 RTS [76]
Belgium 25 RTS [74]
Belgium 11 RTS [76]
Bulgaria 39,000 RTS [76]
Cyprus 310 RTS [76]
Czech Republic 11 RTS [76]
Denmark 4 RTS [74]
Denmark 4.1 RTS [76]
Denmark 29 PRC [9]
Estonia 13 RTS [76]
Finland 1.0 (ref) RTS [74] GP C.jejuni , 5.2 CBS/OUT [86]
Finland 0.4 RTS [76]
France 3,958 RTS [74]
France 280 RTS [76]
Germany 6 RTS [74]
Germany 4.4 RTS [76]
Germany 9.3 PRC [9]
Greece 47,191 RTS [74]
Hungary 52 RTS [76]
Ireland 46 RTS [74]
Ireland 29 RTS [76]
Italy 660 RTS [76]
Italy 100 PRC [9]
Lithuania 40 RTS [76]
Luxembourg 19 RTS [74]
Luxembourg 3.9 RTS [76]
Malta 90 RTS [76]
Poland 4,100 RTS [76]
Poland 72 PRC [9]
Romania 6,900 RTS [76]
Slovakia 35 RTS [76]
Slovenia 14 RTS [76]
Spain 270 RTS [76]
Sweden 0.4 RTS [76]
Sweden 17 PRC [9]
The Netherlands 31 RTS [74]
The Netherlands 22 (ref) RTS [76]
The Netherlands 22.9 (5-95% quartiles: 8.2 - 50) BRI/BoD [57] 4.1 (5-95% quartiles: 9.3 – 56.7) BRI/BoD [57] 5.6 BRI/BoD [57]
The Netherlands 10.9 - 21.4 Sero [58] 5.0 - 5.4 Sero [58] 2.0 - 4.3 Sero [58]
The Netherlands 9.7 (5-95% quartiles: 4.1 - 23.0) CBS / BoD [56] 4.2 (5-95% quartiles: 0.0 - 7.4) CBS/BoD [56]
The Netherlands 18.9 LAB [62]
The Netherlands 49 PRC [9]
The Netherlands UElab, 13.94 (PERT 4.96 – 28.67) MOD [61]
United Kingdom 11 RTS [74]
United Kingdom 4.4 RTS [76]
United Kingdom 9.3 (95% CI: 6–14.4) CBS [47] 7.2 (95% CI: 3.3 - 15.9) CBS [47] 1.3 (95% CI: 0.9 - 1.8) CBS [47]
United Kingdom 52 PRC [9]
United Kingdom UElab 10.3 CBS /BoD [55]
United Kingdom 7.6 (95% CI: 3.6 - 17.4) CBS [2] 2.1 (95% CI: 5–3.0) CBS [2]
EU-27 47 (range 0.4 - 39,000) RTS [76]
Norway 4 RTS [74]
Norway 2.4 RTS [76]
Switzerland 3.3 RTS [76]
USA 38 (taken from [49]) BoD [83] NT, BD: 2.9 (PERT 2.0-5.3) BoD [84] NT UN, 1 BoD [84]
NBD: 5.6 (PERT 5–6.7)
USA
Canada 23 - 49 PM [85]
Australia ‡BD: 1-2d 12.40 (95% CrI: 9.16– 17.82) PM [33] ‡BD: 1–2 days: 10 (95% CrI: 7.1-14.3) PM [33]
3-4 days: 2.3 (95% CrI: 1.9-3.2)
3-4d 3.06 (95% CrI: 2.32–4.33)
≥5 days: 1.5 (95% CrI: 1.1-2.2)
≥5d 1.97 (95% CrI: 1.42–2.95) NBD: 1–2 days: 10 (95% CrI: 7.1-14.3) 3–4 days: 2.3 (95% CrI: 1.9-3.2)
NBD: 1-2d 154.2 (95% CrI: 89.3–397.6)
≥5 days: 1.5 (95% CrI: 1.1-2.2)
3-4d 14.15 (95% CrI: 6.80–73.32)
≥5d 4.25 (95% CrI: 2.25–13.36)
Overall: 10 (95% CrI: 6.6–22)

1. This table lists all extracted or derived MFs (with variance shown as 95% CI, 95% CrI, PERT distribution (max, min, mode), or 5-95% quartiles where available) from relevant studies found during the extensive literature review. MFs give an estimation of the extent of UE (combined UA and UR), UA and UR for campylobacteriosis in a particular country; the higher the MF, the higher the proportion of cases not captured by the surveillance system. These MFs could be applied to official figures as reported by public health agencies to adjust for UE and give a new estimate of total symptomatic infections occurring in a population at a given time. Exception is; “UElab” where the MF can adjust official laboratory figures of laboratory confirmed infections and give a new estimate of total infections (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) occurring in a population at a given time. MFs of UA and UR can be multiplied together to make one MF of UE.

2. For abbreviations and symbols, see footnote 2 for Table  1.

3. For MFs estimated in the same RTS, one country will be listed as the reference country (i.e. 'ref’) and all other countries compared to this.

Gibbons et al.

Gibbons et al. BMC Public Health 2014 14:147   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-147

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