Table 1

Meta-analyzed odds ratios for risky birth intervals, with neonatal and under-5 mortality as outcomes

Region (number of countries)

Short Interval

Reference Interval

Long Interval


< 18 months OR (95% CI)

< 24 months OR (95% CI)

24-<60 months

≥60 months OR (95% CI)

≥72 months OR (95% CI)


Outcome: Neonatal Mortality


Africa (n=28)

1.79 (1.54, 2.09)

1.66 (1.55, 1.78)

Ref

0.81 (0.59, 1.11)

0.75 (0.54, 1.05)

Asia (n=8)

1.74 (1.62, 1.87)

1.55 (1.47, 1.63)

Ref

0.73 (0.59, 0.92)

0.83 (0.62, 1.11)

Americas n = 5)

2.15 (1.80, 2.57)

1.82 (1.57, 2.12)

Ref

0.77 (0.47, 1.29)

0.89 (0.42, 1.86)

Other (n = 6)

1.76 (1.01, 3.05)

1.32 (0.77, 2.27)

Ref

1.81 (0.77, 4.26)

1.46 (0.63, 3.42)*

All (n=47)

1.82 (1.70, 1.95)

1.61 (1.52, 1.70)

Ref

0.80 (0.67, 0.95)

0.85 (0.69, 1.04)


Outcome: Under-5 Mortality


Africa (n=28)

1.55 (1.44, 1.67)

1.40 (1.32, 1.50)

Ref

0.55 (0.47, 0.65)

0.55 (0.45, 0.68)

Asia (n=8)

1.70 (1.44, 2.01)

1.53 (1.38, 1.69)

Ref

0.60 (0.45, 0.79)

0.54 (0.41, 0.73)

Americas n = 5)

1.90 (1.71, 2.12)

1.70 (1.55, 1.85)

Ref

0.69 (0.48, 0.98)

0.73 (0.54, 0.99)

Other (n = 6)

1.88 (1.26, 2.82)

1.55 (1.11, 2.17)

Ref

0.89 (0.62, 1.28)

0.73 (0.27, 1.94)

All (n=47)

1.66 (1.55, 1.79)

1.48 (1.40, 1.56)

Ref

0.59 (0.52, 0.67)

0.58 (0.49, 0.67)


Reference birth interval: 24-<60 months

Kozuki and Walker BMC Public Health 2013 13(Suppl 3):S6   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-S3-S6

Open Data