Table 1

Summary of findings for the effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on exclusive breastfeeding rates.

Quality Assessment

Summary of Findings


Directness

No of events


No of Studies

Design

Limitations

Consistency

Generalizability to population of interest

Generalizability to intervention of interest

Intervention

Control

Relative Risk (95% CI)

Comments


Rate of exclusive breastfeeding at day 1: low outcome-specific quality


15

6 RCTs [14,40,49,70,71,74], 9 QE [21,32,45,48,56,59,64,85,88]

Studies used different follow up periods and recall criteria. Mothers in the intervention group may have over-reported feeding practices.

6 of 15 studies suggest benefit. Significant heterogeneity

10 out of 15 studies were conducted in developed countries

Pooled results for different types of interventions.

4093

6316

1.43 [1.09, 1.87]

Random effects meta-analysis due to heterogeneity.

The majority of studies used individual counseling as the intervention; most were facility and community-based.


Rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 0-1 month: Low outcome-specific quality


30

22 RCTs, 8 QE [13,17-19,21,22,33,38,39,41,42,45,52,53,55-57,60,61,65,66,68,71-74,76,81,84,85]

Studies used different follow up periods. Recall criteria variable across studies (past 24 hr, past week or previous month). Mothers in the intervention group may have over-reported feeding practices.

15 of 30 studies suggest benefit. Significant heterogeneity

19 of 30 studies were conducted in developed countries

Pooled results for different types of interventions

1512

1276

1.30 [1.19, 1.42]

Random effects meta-analysis due to heterogeneity.

The majority of studies used individual counseling as the intervention; most were facility and community-based.


Rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 1-6 months: low outcome-specific quality


53

34 RCTs, 19 QE [11-14,19,20,22,33-38,40-52,54,57-59,61-65,67,69,71-83,85-87]

Variable follow up periods used in studies. Recall criteria variable across studies (past 24 hr, past week or previous month). Mothers in the intervention group may have over-reported feeding practices.

21 of 53 studies suggest benefit. Significant heterogeneity

29 of 53 studies were conducted in developed countries

Pooled results for different types of interventions

5481

4897

1.90 [1.54, 2.34]

Random effects meta-analysis due to heterogeneity.

The majority of studies used individual counseling as the intervention; most were facility and community-based


Haroon et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13(Suppl 3):S20   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-S3-S20

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