Table 2

Summary of included studies presenting estimates of association between early breastfeeding initiation and all-cause mortality

    Study, Location

    Sample Size

    Study

    Def of BF Exposure

    Comment/Conclusions

    Grade


    All-cause neonatal mortality, among all infants surviving to 48 hours or more


Mullany [11], Nepal, community

22,838

prospective cohort

early vs. late

Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with a lower risk of mortality: RR=0.71 (0.54, 0.93)

HIGH

Edmond [20], Ghana, community

10,947

prospective cohort

early vs. late

Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with a lower risk of mortality: RR=0.43 (0.31, 0.61)

HIGH

Garcia [24], India, community

10,464

prospective cohort

early vs. late

Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with a lower risk of mortality: RR=0.56 (0.32, 0.97)

HIGH

Bamji [31], India, community

378

case control

early vs. late

Reported a significant association between early initiation and a reduction in neonatal mortality

LOW


    All-cause neonatal mortality, among low birth weight infants surviving to 48 hours or more


Mullany [11], Nepal, community

22,838

prospective cohort

early vs. late

Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with lower risk of mortality: RR=0.63 (0.44, 0.90)

HIGH

Edmond [22], Ghana, community

10,947

prospective cohort

early vs. late

Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with lower risk of mortality: RR=0.37 (0.14, 0.98)

HIGH

Garcia [24], India, community

10,464

prospective cohort

early vs. late

Mortality was lower among those breastfed early, but not statistically significant: RR=0.54 (0.28, 1.04)

HIGH


    All-cause neonatal mortality, among exclusively breastfed infants surviving to 48 hours or more


Mullany [11], Nepal, community

22,838

prospective cohort

early vs. late

No evidence that early breastfeeding was associated with mortality: RR=1.21 (0.49, 2.98)

HIGH

Edmond [22], Ghana, community

10,947

prospective cohort

early vs. late

Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with lower risk of mortality: RR=0.46 (0.29, 0.72)

HIGH


Debes et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13(Suppl 3):S19   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-S3-S19

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