Table 1 

Comparison definitions, study diets, and inventory of available outcome data 

Study ID 
Intervention diet 
Control diet 
Available outcome data 



Duration 
Stool output 
Weight change 
Treatment failure 



Comparison 1. Liquid feeds: Reduced lactose versus Regular lactose Comparison of diets that include lactosecontaining liquid feeds, where the intervention liquid feed contains less lactose than the control liquid feed 



Bhatnagar 1998 
Fermented formula + ricelentiloil gruel 
Milk formula + ricelentiloil gruel 
Y 

Chew 1993 
Gradually increased concentration of milk formula 
Full strength milk formula 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Ibanez 1986 
Acidified milk formula 
Milk formula 
Y 

Lifshitz 1991 
Diluted cow's milk 
Cow's milk formula 
Y 

Pichaipat 1986 
Gradually increased concentration of milk formula 
Full strength milk formula 
Y 

Ransome 1984 
Gradually increased concentration of cow's milk 
Fullstrength cow's milk 
Y 
Y 

Singh 1987 
Yogurt 
Milk 
Y 

Touhami 1989 
Half strength milk or milk formula 
Full strength milk or milk formula 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Touhami 1992 
Fermented milk formula + cereals + vegetable soup 
Milk formula + cereals + vegetable soup 
Y 
Y 
Y 



Comparison 2. Liquid feeds: Lactosefree versus Lactosecontaining Comparison of diets that include liquid feeds, where the intervention liquid feed is lactosefree and the control liquid feed is lactosecontaining 



Brown 1991 
i) Lactosehydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids; ii) Lactosehydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles 
i) Powdered milk + corn syrup solids; ii) Powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Fayad 1999 
Soybased formula with sucrose 
Soybased formula with lactose 
Y 
Y 
Y 

Haffejee 1990 
Soybased formula 
Cow's milk formula 
Y 

Lifshitz 1991 
i) Lactosefree sodium caseinate formula; ii) Lactosefree casein hydrolysate formula; iii) Soybased formula 
i) Diluted cow's milk; ii) Cow's milk formula 
Y 

Lozano 1994 
Lactosefree caseinbased formula plus nonmilk food 
Cow's milk formula plus same nonmilk food 
Y 
Y 

Naidoo 1981 
Soybased formula 
Cow's milk formula 
Y 

Penny 1989 
Lactosehydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids 
Powdered milk + corn syrup solids 
Y 

Rajah 1988 
i) Lactosefree caseinbased formula; ii) Soybased formula; iii) Lactosefree hydrolyzed whey formula 
Cow's milk formula 
Y 
Y 

Romer 1989 
Lactosefree semielemental formula 
Cow's milk 
Y 
Y 

Simakachorn 2004 
Soybased formula + rice gruel 
Cow's milk formula + rice gruel 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 


Comparison 3. Lactosefree liquid feeds versus Lactosecontaining mixed diets Comparison of lactosefree liquid feeds with mixed diets containing lactose 



Alarcon 1991 
Soybased formula 
Potato flour + milk powder + carrot flour + veg oil + sugar 
Y 

Bhutta 1991 
Soybased formula 
Rice + lentils + cottonseed oil + yogurt 
Y 
Y 
Y 

Bhutta 1994 
Soybased formula 
Rice + lentils + cottonseed oil + yogurt + diluted buffalo milk 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Brown 1991 
Lactosehydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids 
Powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 


Comparison 4. Commercially prepared or specialized ingredients versus Homeavailable ingredients Comparison of commercial preparations or specialized ingredients with diets comprised of homeavailable ingredients 



Alarcon 1991 
Soybased formula 
i) Wheat flour + pea flour + carrot flour + veg oil + cane sugar; ii) Potato flour + milk powder + carrot flour + veg oil + sugar 
Y 

Alarcon 1992 
Rice + vegetable oil + soy protein isolate + corn syrup solids 
Rice + vegetable oil +white beans 
Y 

Bhan 1988 
Cow's milk formula 
Rice + lentil + sugar + coconut oil 
Y 
Y 
Y 

Bhutta 1991 
Soybased formula 
Rice + lentils + cottonseed oil + yogurt 
Y 
Y 
Y 

Bhutta 1994 
Soybased formula 
Rice + lentils + cottonseed oil + yogurt + diluted buffalo milk 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Brown 1991 
i) Lactosehydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids; ii) Lactosehydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles 
i) Powdered milk + corn syrup solids; ii) Powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Carias 1999 
Soybased formula 
Lactosefree chickenbased formula 
Y 
Y 

Godard 1989 
Hydrolyzed lactalbumin + dextrinmaltrose + sunflower oil + carrots 
Chicken + dextrinmaltrose + sunflower oil + carrots 
Y 

Grange 1994 
Soybased formula 
Fermented maize flour + toasted cowpea flour + palm oil + sugar 
Y 

Lifshitz 1991 
i) Lactosefree sodium caseinate formula; ii) Lactosefree casein hydrolysate formula; iii) Soybased formula; iv) Cow's milk formula 
Diluted cow's milk 
Y 

MaulenRadovan 1994 
Soybased formula 
Rice + chicken + carrots + beans + vegetable oil 
Y 
Y 
Y 

Nurko 1997 
i) Elemental formula: ii) Soybased formula 
Chicken + sugar + minerals + cooking oil 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Penny 1989 
Lactosehydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids 
Powdered milk + corn syrup solids 
Y 

Romer 1989 
Lactosefree semielemental formula 
Cow's milk 
Y 
Y 

Santosham 1990 
i) Soybased formula; ii) Ricebased formula 
Liquefied boiled rice 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 


Gaffey et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13(Suppl 3):S17 doi:10.1186/1471245813S3S17 