Table 3

Risk factors for increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in 1578 HIV subjects (normal = 1023, increased LDL-C = 555) on ARV medication
Characteristics Normal Increased LDL aOR 95.0 C.I. for OR p-value
Mean ± S.D. Mean ± S.D. Lower Upper
N (%) N (%)
Ethnicity
Malay 703 (69.3) 317 (57.4) 1.00
Chinese 214 (21.1) 175 (31.7) 0.551 0.434 0.701 0.001
Indian 98 (9.7) 60 (10.9) 0.749 0.513 1.093 0.134
Hypertension
No 785 (80.5) 400 (74.6) 1.00
Yes 190 (19.5) 136 (25.4) 1.405 1.093 1.805 0.008
TG (mmol/l) 2.54 ± 2.00 2.14 ± 1.14 0.858 0.800 0.920 0.001
<3.36 413 (40.4) 233 (42.0) 1.00
≥3.36 609 (59.6) 322 (58.0) 0.937 0.760 1.156 0.545
TC (mmol/l) 4.74 ± 1.00 6.26 ± 1.09 6.468 5.319 7.866 0.001
<5.17 705 (69.0) 19 (3.4)
>5.17 317 (31.0) 536 (96.6) 2.620 2.399 2.861 0.001
HDL (mmol/l) 1.31 ± 0.65 1.33 ± 0.33 1.049 0.876 1.257 0.602
Low 349 (34.1) 101 (18.2) 1.00
Normal§ 673 (65.9) 454 (81.8) 2.331 1.813 2.997 0.001
Hepatitis
No 882 (86.2) 507 (91.4) 1.00
Yes 141 (13.8) 48 (8.6) 0.592 0.419 0.836 0.003

§ ≥1.03 (Male) and ≥1.30 (Female). Adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, CD4, HIV RNA Load, TC, TG, HDL, FPG, alcohol consumption, smoking, liver disease, medication with agents including ARV (PI), b-blocker, anti-hyperglycemic. aOR Adjusted odds ratio.

Hejazi et al.

Hejazi et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:758   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-758

Open Data