Table 2

Integration of theoretical concepts and measurement procedures
Theoretical Concepts Measures Pre During Post 6-month follow-up
Built and Natural Physical Environment Walkability (connectivity, density, mixed-use), Perceived Attributes
• Geographical Information Systems (ArcGIS 10): 0.5 mile road network buffer for each geocoded address; walkability index based on street connectivity, residential density, and land use mix [80,81] X
• Walkscore [82] X
• Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale [83] X X X
PA Settings and Resources: Number, Attributes, Homogeneity
• Convenient PA facilities questionnaire [84] X X X
• Home exercise equipment questionnaire [84] X X X
• Settings where PA was done (adapted scale) [85] X X X
Population Attributes Population Number and Density
• Census data X
Population Individual Attributes
• Background characteristics questionnaire X
Population Homogeneity
• Degree of similarity on selected characteristics between each participant and other participants by each recruitment cohort [86] X
Interaction Mode Use of Interaction Modes for Walking and Physical Activity
• Self-reported use of different communication modes (online, phone, in-person) to organize walking and PA* X X X
• WalkLink+ group only: objective monitoring of frequency and types of activities conducted (e.g., posting walks, contributing to discussions) on online WalkLink site X X X
Access and Use of Interaction Modes in General
• Self-reported ownership and use of cell phones to receive email* X
• Self-reported use of Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace* X
Social Network Centrality In-Person Connections
• Self-reported number of different companions for walking and PA* X X X
• Self-reported number of friends/family members participating in this program* X X
Online Connections
• WalkLink+ Group only: objective monitoring of number of “friends” on online WalkLink site X X X
Social Network Relational Attributes Physical Proximity
• Self-reported geographical proximity to existing walking and PA companions* X X X
Network Relationship Roles
• Self-reported types of relationships (e.g., friend, family member) with existing walking and PA companions* X X X
Social Network Functions: Behavioral Resources, Assistance, Companionship, Encouragement, Praise
• Social support for walking and PA scales [87] X X X
• Participant actions to prompt walking and PA scale* X X X
Modeling/Norms
• Modeling and social norms for walking and PA scale* X X X
Behavioral Monitoring and Refinement
• Goal setting and planning for walking scales (adapted) [74] X X X
Social Network Functions: Perceived Physiological Exertion
• Borg rating of perceived exertion immediately after each walk [88] X
Emotional States/Enjoyment
• Rating of overall feeling/emotions immediately after each walk [14] X
• Walking enjoyment (adapted scale) [89] X X X
Perceived Benefits and Costs
• Proximal outcome expectations (adapted scale)* [14,74] X X X
Physical Activity Sedentary Behavior, and Light, Moderate, and Vigorous PA
• Actigraph GT3X triaxial accelerometer, worn for 7 days, data stored as 1-min averages [90,91] X X X
Walking Activity
• Pedometer (Yamax SW-200), stopwatch, and weekly walking logs reporting walking steps and speed [92,93] X
• National Health Interview Survey (2 items) [94] X X X
PA in Different Life Domains, Sedentary Behavior
• International PA Questionnaire, long version [95] X X X
PA Modes (different types of PA)
• Aerobics Center Longitudinal PA Questionnaire [96] X X X
Health Outcomes Aerobic Fitness
• Submaximal treadmill test: submaximal heart rate (measured by Polar heart rate monitor) during test [97] X X X
• Submaximal treadmill test: estimated VO2max [97] X X X
Vitals
• Pulse: calibrated hospital-grade Welch Allyn device [98] X X X
• Blood pressure: calibrated hospital-grade Welch Allyn device [98] X X X
Body Composition
• Body mass index: Physician’s balance beam scale (model Detecto 439) and calibrated Seca 242 digital stadiometer [97] X X X
• Waist circumference: Gulick II tape measure [97] X X X
Sleep Quantity and Quality
• Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [99] X X X
• Exposure to ambient noise during sleep scale* X X X
Intervention Fidelity Participation[100]
• Return rate for weekly walking logs X
• Attendance rate at program-organized walks for WalkLink+ group X
• Activities on online social networking site for WalkLink+ group X X X
Intervention Receipt and Satisfaction[100]
• Program evaluation survey: qualitative and quantitative assessment* X
Change in Theoretical Mediators
• Degree to which theoretical mediators (listed above) changed in hypothesized direction for each of the intervention groups X X X X
Intervention Delivery and Quality Control
• Program records, weekly meetings, staff training, walking feedback double-checked each week and 10% of feedback reviewed by PI, double-verification of manually entered data, participants recontacted for missing data, multiple sources of contact information obtained for each participant X

*New investigator-designed measure.

Rovniak et al.

Rovniak et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:753   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-753

Open Data