Table 2

Comparisons of the three referral models during six months of follow-up
Variables Subjects Subjects referred Referral rate Unadjusted Adjusted P-value
N (%) n (%) (n/N,%) OR (CI) OR (CI)
Referral strategy
Model 1: Referral Cards + Police-Assisted MMT Enrollment 112 (49.6) 6 (27.3) 5.4 1.0 1.0
Model 2: Referral Cards + 2 Months MMT in Detoxification 62 (27.4) 16 (72.7) 25.8 1.2 (1.1-1.4) 1.2 (1.1-1.3) 0.0023
Model 3: Referral Cards Only 52 (23.0) 0 (0.0) 0.0 0.95 (0.83-1.1) 0.99 (0.90-1.1) 0.0757
Baseline covariates
Age (years)
 18 - 24 23 (10.2) 0 (0.0) 0.0 1.0 1.0 -
 25 - 34 122 (54.0) 13 (59.1) 10.7 0.97 (0.81-1.2) 1.0 (0.84-1.2) 0.9966
 35 - 44 63 (27.9) 9 (40.9) 14.3 1.1 (0.97-1.3) 1.1 (0.96-1.3) 0.1662
 ≥ 45 18 (8.0) 0 (0.0) 0.0 0.97 (0.81-1.2) 1.0 (0.84-1.2) 0.9966
Gender
 Female 9 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 0.0 1.0 1.0 -
 Male 217 (96.0) 22 (100) 10.1 1.2 (0.96-1.4) 0.96 (0.81-1.1) 0.6477
Ethnicity
 Minority 88 (38.9) 13 (59.1) 14.8 1.0 1.0 -
 Han 138 (61.1) 9 (40.9) 6.5 0.93 (0.86-1.0) 0.96 (0.90-1.0) 0.2631
Education level
 < Primary school 121 (52.5) 5 (22.7) 4.1 1.0 1.0 -
 Junior high school 87 (38.5) 13 (59.1) 14.9 1.1 (1.0-1.2) 1.0 (0.95-1.1) 0.6598
 ≥ Senior high school 18 (8.0) 4 (18.2) 22.2 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 1.1 (0.92-1.2) 0.4434
Marital status
 Never married 102 (45.1) 16 (72.7) 15.7 1.0 1.0 -
 Married 95 (42.0) 5 (22.7) 5.3 0.90 (0.83-0.97) 0.94 (0.87-1.0) 0.1041
 Divorced or widowed 29 (12.8) 1 (4.5) 3.4 0.89 (0.80-1.0) 0.91 (0.81-1.0) 0.0932
HIV status
 Negative 158 (69.9) 11 (50.0) 7.0 1.0 1.0 -
 Positive 68 (30.1) 11 (50.0) 16.2 0.94 (0.86-1.0) 0.98 (0.90-1.1) 0.6770
History of heroin use (years)
 < 1 30 (13.3) 0 (0.0) 0.0 1.0 1.0 -
 1-5 71 (31.4) 3 (13.6) 4.2 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 1.0 (0.93-1.2) 0.4783
 6-10 57 (25.2) 9 (40.9) 15.8 1.2 (1.0-1.3) 1.0 (0.93-1.2) 0.4948
 > 10 68 (30.1) 10 (45.5) 14.7 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 1.0 (0.93-1.2) 0.4783
Prior participation in a needle-exchange program
 No 220 (97.3) 21 (95.5) 9.5 1.0 1.0 -
 Yes 6 (2.7) 1 (4.5) 16.7 1.1 (0.90-1.4) 1.2 (0.97-1.5) 0.0880
Prior participation in an MMT program 0.0
 No 192 (85.0) 5 (22.7) 2.6 1.0 1.0 -
 Yes 34 (15.0) 17 (77.3) 50.0 1.6 (1.4-1.7) 1.5 (1.3-1.6) <0.0001
Willingness to participate in an MMT program
 No 109 (48.2) 6 (27.3) 5.5 1.0 1.0 -
 Yes 116 (51.3) 16 (72.7) 13.8 1.0 (0.97-1.1) 0.98 (0.92-1.1) 0.6527
Distance from home to the nearest MMT clinic (km)
 > 10 118 (52.2) 5 (22.7) 4.2 1.0 1.0 -
 5-10 41 (18.1) 5 (22.7) 12.2 1.1 (0.98-1.1) 1.1 (0.96-1.1) 0.2565
 < 5 67 (29.6) 12 (54.5) 17.9 1.2 (1.1-1.3) 1.0 (0.95-1.1) 0.4387
Overall 226 (100.0) 22 (100.0) 9.7 - - -

Yan et al.

Yan et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:747   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-747

Open Data