Development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes
1 Endocrinology Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
2 Nutrition Graduate Program, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
BMC Public Health 2013, 13:740 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-740Published: 9 August 2013
To investigate the association between dietary components and development of chronic diabetic complications, the dietary evaluation should include a long period, months or years. The present manuscript aims to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a portfolio with food photos to assess the usual intake pattern of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes to be used in future studies.
Dietary data using 3-day weighed diet records (WDR) from 188 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were used to construct the list of usually consumed foods. Foods were initially clustered into eight groups: “cereals, tubers, roots, and derivatives”; “vegetables and legumes”; “fruits”; “beans”; “meat and eggs”; “milk and dairy products”; “oils and fats”, and “sugars and sweets”. The frequency of food intake and the relative contribution of each food item to the total energy and nutrient intakes were calculated. Portion sizes were determined according to the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles of intake for each food item.
A total of 62 food items were selected based on the 3-day WDR and another 27 foods or how they are prepared and nine beverages were included after the expert examination. Also, a portfolio with food photos of each included food item and portion sizes was made to assist the patients in identifying the consumed portion.
We developed a practical quantitative FFQ and portfolio with photos of 98 food items covering those most commonly consumed in the past 12 months, to assess the usual diet pattern of patients with type 2 diabetes in Southern Brazil.