Table 2

Characteristics of the study population by prehypertension status in three multi-ethnic cohorts (n = 2936)
Chinese Malays Indians
Variable Prehypertension absent Prehypertension present p valueα Prehypertension absent Prehypertension present p valueα Prehypertension absent Prehypertension present p valueα
(n = 473) (n = 704) (n = 241) (n = 533) (n = 417) (n = 568)
Age β (years) 53.0 ± 6.5 55.3 ± 7.8 < 0.001 49.1 ± 8.0 52.6 ± 9.4 < 0.001 51.0 ± 7.1 52.8 ± 7.7 < 0.001
Sex β, female (%) 313 (66.2) 358 (50.9) < 0.001 120 (49.8) 244 (45.8) 0.300 243 (58.3) 275 (48.4) 0.002
Education β, (%)
primary/below 161 (34.0) 312 (44.3) < 0.001 129 (53.5) 301 (56.5) 0.724 152 (36.5) 279 (49.1) 0.002
Secondary 228 (48.2) 319 (45.3) 106 (44.0) 221 (41.5) 189 (45.3) 219 (38.6)
Tertiary 84 (17.8) 73 (10.4) 6 (2.5) 11 (2.1) 76 (18.2) 70 (12.3)
Income level β, (%)
< SGD1000 127 (28.0) 243 (36.0) 0.015 120 (50) 282 (52.3) 0.497 138 (33.8) 225 (39.2) 0.171
≥ SGD1000- < SGD3000 201 (44.3) 277 (41.0) 107 (44.2) 216 (40.1) 174 (42.7) 235 (40.9)
≥ SGD3000 126 (27.8) 156 (23.1) 15 (6.2) 41 (7.6) 96 (23.5) 114 (19.9)
Smoking status
Never 384 (80.8) 523 (74.2) 0.028 130 (53.7) 301 (55.8) 0.764 318 (74.8) 430 (73.6) 0.912
Past 39 (8.2) 75 (10.6) 32 (13.2) 74 (13.7) 35 (8.2) 50 (8.6)
Current 52 (11.0) 107 (15.2) 80 (33.1) 164 (30.4) 72 (16.9) 104 (17.8)
Alcohol consumption (%) 53 (11.2) 85 (12.1) 0.638 10 (4.2) 9 (1.7) 0.039 39 (9.1) 83 (14.2) 0.014
Systolic BP (mm Hg) 110.1 ± 6.9 128.9 ± 5.9 < 0.001 112.0 ± 6.2 129.4 ± 6.1 < 0.001 110.1 ± 6.8 128.6 ± 5.9 < 0.001
Diastolic BP β (mm Hg) 68.0 ± 5.8 76.5 ± 6.6 < 0.001 68.3 ± 5.0 75.9 ± 6.8 < 0.001 69.2 ± 5.2 77.2 ± 6.6 < 0.001
BMI β (kg/m2) 22.0 ± 3.1 23.2 ± 3.4 < 0.001 23.2 ± 4.2 25.4 ± 4.6 < 0.001 24.7 ± 4.3 25.9 ± 4.4 < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol β (mmol/l) 1.4 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4 < 0.001 1.4 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3 < 0.001 1.1 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 < 0.001
LDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.33 ± 0.8 3.47 ± 0.8 < 0.001 3.53 ± 0.8 3.67 ± 0.8 < 0.001 3.46 ± 1.0 3.59 ± 0.9 < 0.001
Triglycerides β (mmol/l) 1.7 ± 1.0 1.9 ± 0.9 < 0.001 1.2 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 1.2 < 0.001 1.6 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 1.0 < 0.001
Plasma glucose β (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 1.1 5.7 ± 1.2 < 0.001 5.0 ± 1.1 5.2 ± 1.1 < 0.001 5.4 ± 1.1 5.6 ± 1.3 < 0.001
HbA1cβ, (%) 5.7 ± 0.3 5.8 ± 0.4 < 0.001 5.6 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.6 < 0.001 5.6 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.5 < 0.001

Data are normally distributed and presented as means (standard deviation) or number (%).

α Significant differences within races, p < 0.05.

β difference between the three races, p < 0.05.

Chiang et al.

Chiang et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:730   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-730

Open Data