Table 1

Sample distribution and prevalence of diabetes (%) among men (n=56,742) and women (n=99,574) aged 20–49 years according to legumes intake and other selected risk factors and background characteristics, India 2005-06
Characteristics Men Women
Total number N [%] Who have diabetes N [%] χ2p value* Total number N [%]

Who have diabetes

[%]

χ2p value*
Legumes intake <0.0001 <0.0001
 Daily 29863[52.6] 437[1.5] 52440[52.7] 538[1.0]
 Weekly 21705[38.3] 219[1.0] 36597[36.8] 360[1.0]
 Occasionally 4660[8.2] 51[1.1] 9663[9.7] 131[1.4]
 Never 505[0.9] 13[2.6] 852[0.9] 20[2.3]
Consumption of other food items
Milk or curd <0.0001 <0.0001
 Daily 26307[46.4] 391[1.5] 40366[40.5] 492[1.2]
 Weekly 11554[20.4] 117[1.0] 15071[15.1] 138[0.9]
 Occasionally 14757[26.0] 138[0.9] 32918[33.1] 302[0.9]
 Never 4114[7.3] 74[1.8] 11202[11.3] 117[1.0]
Green leafy vegetables 0.149 0.090
 Daily 33982[59.9] 453[1.3] 64095[64.4] 674[1.1]
 Weekly 19270[34.0] 231[1.2] 28606[28.7] 286[1.0]
 Occasionally/never 3480[6.1] 35[1.0] 6840[6.9] 89[1.3]
Fruits <0.0001 <0.0001
 Daily 7320[12.9] 125[1.7] 12789[12.9] 206[1.6]
 Weekly 19368[34.1] 255[1.3] 26731[26.9] 276[1.0]
 Occasionally 28484[50.2] 296[1.0] 56336[56.6] 503[0.9]
 Never 1546[2.7] 44[2.8] 3631[3.6] 63[1.7]
Eggs <0.0001 <0.0001
 Daily 2931[5.2] 56[1.9] 3475[3.5] 60[1.7]
 Weekly 20682[36.5] 317[1.5] 28778[28.9] 363[1.3]
 Occasionally 19786[34.9] 201[1.0] 32635[32.8] 287[0.9]
 Never 13330[23.5] 146[1.1] 34647[34.8] 340[1.0]
Fish intake <0.0001 <0.0001
 Daily 3706[6.5] 90[2.4] 6505[6.5] 149[2.3]
 Weekly 14414[25.4] 238[1.7] 22070[22.2] 304[1.4]
 Occasionally 21818[38.5] 225[1.0] 34242[34.4] 264[0.8]
 Never 16782[29.6] 167[1.0] 36724[36.9] 331[0.9]
Chicken or meat <0.0001 <0.0001
 Daily 706[1.2] 6[0.9] 839[0.8] 14[1.7]
 Weekly 15609[27.5] 269[1.7] 21938[22.0] 292[1.3]
 Occasionally 26135[46.1] 291[1.1] 42222[42.0] 423[1.0]
 Never 14272[25.2] 155[1.1] 34537[34.7] 320[0.9]
Body mass index and lifestyle factors
Body mass index (kg/m2)a <0.0001 <0.0001
≤18.5 (Underweight) 15356[28.7] 116[0.8] 41219[43.2] 302[0.7]
18.5-22.9 (Normal) 26616[49.8] 268[1.0] 30663[32.1] 136[0.4]
23.0-24.9 (Overweight) 5635[10.5] 128[2.3] 9454[9.9] 153[1.6]
≥25.0 (Obese) 5881[11.0] 178[3.0] 14169[14.8] 437[3.1]
Current tobacco smoking 0.498 0.514
 No 35422[62.4] 450[1.3] 97738[98.2] 1030[1.1]
 Yes 21321[37.6] 270[1.3] 1835[1.8] 19[1.0]
Alcohol consumption 0.362 0.020
 Never 35965[63.4] 436[1.2] 97101[97.5] 1037[1.1]
 Occasionally 13054[23.0] 180[1.4] 1067[1.1] 7[0.7]
 Once a week 5676[10.0] 74[1.3] 1010[1.0] 3[0.3]
 Almost everyday 2048[3.6] 31[1.5] 396[0.4] 1[0.3]
Frequency of watching TV <0.0001 <0.0001
 Not at all 10517[18.5] 112[1.1] 35399[35.6] 255[0.7]
 Less than once a week 11420[20.1] 95[0.8] 10438[10.5] 96[0.9]
 At least once a week 9081[16.0] 114[1.3] 10952[11.0] 100[0.9]
 Almost everyday 25717[45.3] 400[1.6] 42763[43.0] 598[1.4]
Background factors
Age <0.0001 <0.0001
 20-29 22842[40.3] 91[0.4] 43196[43.4] 113[0.3]
 30-39 19045[33.6] 179[0.9] 33522[33.7] 342[1.0]
 40-49 14855[26.2] 450[3.0] 22856[23.0] 594[2.6]
Educationb <0.0001 <0.0001
Illiterate 11607[20.5] 144[1.2] 45113[45.3] 338[0.7]
Literate, < middle school 10030[17.7] 111[1.1] 14463[14.5] 192[1.3]
Middle school completed 26783[47.2] 320[1.2] 31665[31.8] 435[1.4]
High school complete and above 8311[14.7] 146[1.8] 83284[8.4] 83[1.0]
Religion 0.099 <0.0001
 Hindu 46727[82.3] 575[1.2] 80648[81.0] 792[1.0]
 Muslim 6841[12.1] 103[1.5] 12940[13.0] 164[1.3]
 Christian 1290[2.3] 19[1.5] 2526[2.5] 56[2.2]
 Sikhs 1009[1.8] 17[1.7] 1836[1.8] 21[1.1]
 Othersc 876[1.5] 6[0.7] 1624[1.6] 16[1.0]
Caste/tribed <0.0001 <0.0001
 Scheduled caste 10670[18.8] 131[1.2] 18260[18.3] 173[0.9]
 Scheduled tribes 4732[8.3] 24[0.5] 8002[8.0] 30[0.4]
 Other backward class 22116[39.0] 256[1.2] 38860[39.0] 368[0.9]
 Others 17414[30.7] 270[1.6] 31440[31.6] 437[1.4]
 Missing caste 1810[3.2] 40[2.2] 3011[3.0] 41[1.4]
Wealth indexe <0.0001 <0.0001
 Lowest 9103[16.0] 71[0.8] 17286[17.4] 71[0.4]
 Second 10205[18.0] 100[1.0] 18546[18.6] 141[0.8]
 Middle 11533[20.3] 80[0.7] 19698[19.8] 152[0.8]
 Fourth 12634[22.3] 154[1.2] 20925[21.0] 275[1.3]
 Highest 13266[23.4] 316[2.4] 23119[23.2] 411[1.8]
Place of residence <0.0001 <0.0001
 Urban 20779[36.6] 347[1.7] 33355[33.5] 551[1.7]
 Rural 35963[63.4] 373[1.0] 66219[66.5] 498[0.8]
Geographic regionsf <0.0001 <0.0001
 North 7767[13.7] 60[0.8] 13286[13.3] 116[0.9]
 Northeast 2313[4.1] 23[1.0] 3978[4.0] 28[0.7]
 Central 12971[22.9] 82[0.6] 22250[22.3] 126[0.6]
 East 11810[20.8] 213[1.8] 21913[22.0] 295[1.3]
 West 9279[16.4] 90[1.0] 15052[15.1] 121[0.8]
 South 12603[22.2] 252[2.0] 23096[23.2] 363[1.6]
Total percent 1.3 1.1
Numberg 56742 720 99574 1050

aIn NFHS-3, all respondents were weighed using a solar powered scale with an accuracy of ±100 g. Their height was measured using an adjustable wooden measuring board, specifically designed to provide accurate measurements (to the nearest 0.1 cm). Pregnant women and women who had a delivery in the 2 months preceding the survey were excluded from the anthropometric measurements.

bEducation: illiterate (0 years of education), literate but less than middle school complete (1–5 years of education), middle school complete (6–8 years of education), high school complete or more (9+ years of education).

cOthers include Buddhist, Jain, Jewish, and Zoroastrian.

dScheduled castes and scheduled tribes are identified by the Government of India as socially and economically backward and needing protection from social injustice and exploitation. Other backward class is a diverse collection of intermediate castes that were considered low in the traditional caste hierarchy but are clearly above scheduled castes. Others is thus a default residual group that enjoys higher status in the caste hierarchy.

eThe wealth index is based on following assets in the household: household electrification, type of windows, drinking water source, type of toilet facility, type of flooring, material of exterior walls, type of roofing, house ownership, ownership of a bank or post office account, and ownership of a mattress, a pressure cooker, a chair, a cot/bed, a table, an electric fan, a radio/transistor, a black and white television, a colour television, a sewing machine, a mobile telephone, any other telephone, a computer, a refrigerator, a watch or clock, a bicycle, a motorcycle or scooter, an animal-drawn cart, a car, a water pump, a thresher, and a tractor.

fRegion: North: Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal; Northeast: Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura; Central: Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh; East: Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa; West: Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat; South: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

gNumber of men and women varies slightly for individual variables depending on the number of missing values.

*p-value is the result of a simple Chi-square test for independence. Pearson Chi-square test is used to examine whether association between the dependent variable (self reported diabetes) and predictor variable (such as legume consumption) and other covariates and confounders was statistically significant.

Agrawal and Ebrahim

Agrawal and Ebrahim BMC Public Health 2013 13:706   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-706

Open Data