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Prevalence of hyperuricemia and its related risk factors in healthy adults from Northern and Northeastern Chinese provinces

Ling Qiu1*, Xin-qi Cheng1, Jie Wu1, Jun-ting Liu2, Tao Xu3, Hai-tao Ding4, Yan-hong Liu5, Zeng-mei Ge1, Ya-jing Wang1, Hui-juan Han1, Jing Liu1 and Guang-jin Zhu6*

Author affiliations

1 Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing 100730, China

2 Department of Epidemiology, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020, China

3 Department of Statistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China

4 Department of Clinical Laboratory, Inner Mongolian People’s Hospital, Hohhot 010017, China

5 Department of Clinical Laboratory, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, China

6 Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No. 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005, PR China

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Citation and License

BMC Public Health 2013, 13:664  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-664

Published: 17 July 2013



Hyperuricemia (HUA) is a potential risk factor for developing insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, we studied the prevalence of HUA and associated risk factors in the population of two provinces in northern China.


Based on the research of Chinese Physiological Constant and Health Conditions conducted in 2008–2010, we enrolled 29,639 subjects in a randomized, stratified study in four sampling areas in Heilongjiang Province and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We collected 13,140 serum samples to determine biochemical indicators including uric acid(UA), glucose, blood lipids, liver function, and renal function, and finally a representative sample of 8439 aged 18 years and older was determined. We also defined and stratified HUA, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and lipid abnormalities according to international guidelines.


There were significant differences in the UA levels between different genders and regions. The total prevalence of HUA is 13.7%. Men had a higher prevalence of HUA than women (21% vs. 7.9%; P < 0.0001). As age increased, HUA prevalence decreased in men but rose in women. The suburbs of big cities had the highest HUA prevalence (18.7%), and in high-prevalence areas the proportion of women with HUA also increased. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to filter out twelve HUA risk factors, including age, gender, residence, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, obesity, abdominal obesity, CKD, drinking and sleeping. After adjusting for these factors, the odds ratio of HUA was 1.92 times higher in men than in women. Compared with agricultural and pastoral areas, the odds ratio of having HUA was 2.14 for participants in the suburbs of big cities and 1.57 in the center of big cities.


The prevalence of HUA is high in northern China. The differences in HUA prevalence by geographic region suggested that unbalanced economic development and health education, therefore HUA prevention measures should be strengthened to improve quality of life and reduce health care costs.

Prevalence; Hyperuricemia; Risk factors