Table 4

Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between calcium and risk of gastrointestinal cancer in men and women
Men (N = 260,469)
Oesophageal cancer Stomach cancer Colon cancer Rectal cancer Colorectal cancer
n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI)
Calcium (SD: 0.10 mmol/L) 1.13 (0.98-1.30) 0.94 (0.85-1.04) 1.02 (0.96-1.08) 1.03 (0.96-1.11) 1.02 (0.98-1.07)
Quartiles of calcium
  < 2.33 62 1.00 (Ref) 143 1.00 (Ref) 389 1.00 (Ref) 223 1.00 (Ref) 612 1.00 (Ref)
  2.33-2.39 62 0.89 (0.62-1.27) 171 1.13 (0.90-1.41) 407 0.96 (0.84-1.11) 282 1.10 (0.92-1.32) 689 1.01 (0.91-1.13)
  2.39-2.45 57 1.00 (0.68-1.45) 99 0.84 (0.64-1.09) 352 1.05 (0.90-1.22) 236 1.12 (0.92-1.35) 588 1.07 (0.96-1.21)
  ≥ 2.45 56 1.25 (0.84-1.86) 88 0.99 (0.74-1.31) 246 0.96 (0.81-1.15) 185 1.10 (0.89-1.36) 431 1.02 (0.89-1.16)
P-value for trend 0.24 0.40 0.97 0.36 0.55
Calcium according to age-specific cut-offs
Low 1 0.56 (0.08-4.00) 4 0.92 (0.34-2.48) 7 0.62 (0.29-1.30) 9 1.47 (0.78-2.86) 16 1.01 (0.97-1.06)
Normal 232 1.00 (Ref) 487 1.00 (Ref) 1360 1.00 (Ref) 895 1.00 (Ref) 2255 1.00 (Ref)
High 4 1.03 (0.38-2.78) 10 1.27 (0.67-2.38) 27 1.21 (0.83-1.78) 22 1.36 (0.89-2.09) 49 0.92 (0.56-1.51)
Albumin-corrected calcium1
  (SD: 0.09 mmol/L) 1.14 (1.00-1.29) 0.98 (0.89-1.07) 1.04 (0.98-1.10) 1.03 (0.97-1.11) 1.04 (0.99-1.08)
Quartiles of albumin-corrected calcium1
  < 2.27 50 1.00 (Ref) 110 1.00 (Ref) 258 1.00 (Ref) 187 1.00 (Ref) 445 1.00 (Ref)
  2.27-2.33 40 0.75 (0.49-1.13) 106 0.89 (0.68-1.16) 316 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 204 1.01 (0.83-1.23) 520 1.08 (0.95-1.22)
  2.33-2.38 64 0.97 (0.67-1.40) 134 0.91 (0.71-1.17) 378 1.09 (0.93-1.28) 260 1.05 (0.87-1.26) 638 1.07 (0.95-1.21)
  ≥ 2.38 83 1.16 (0.82-1.65) 151 0.93 (0.73-1.19) 442 1.17 (1.00-1.36) 275 1.02 (0.85-1.23) 727 1.11 (0.98-1.25)
P-value for trend 0.17 0.68 0.08 0.76 0.12
Women (N = 231,575)
Calcium (SD: 0.10 mmol/L) 1.25 (1.04-1.51) 1.07 (0.95-1.20) 1.07 (1.00-1.14) 1.04 (0.96-1.13) 1.06 (1.01-1.11)
Quartiles of calcium
  < 2.32 21 1.00 (Ref) 58 1.00 (Ref) 211 1.00 (Ref) 113 1.00 (Ref) 324 1.00 (Ref)
  2.32-2.38 23 0.98 (0.54-1.79) 77 1.12 (0.79-1.58) 302 1.17 (0.98-1.40) 147 1.04 (0.82-1.34) 449 1.13 (0.98-1.30)
  2.38-2.44 18 0.80 (0.42-1.55) 66 0.98 (0.68-1.41) 300 1.17 (0.97-1.40) 160 1.12 (0.88-1.44) 460 1.15 (0.99-1.33)
  ≥ 2.44 33 1.30 (0.71-2.38) 100 1.25 (0.88-1.77) 370 1.18 (0.99-1.42) 178 1.01 (0.78-1.30) 548 1.12 (0.97-1.30)
P-value for trend 0.32 0.30 0.13 0.90 0.19
Calcium according to age-specific cut-offs
Low 1 0.70 (0.10-5.16) 5 1.44 (0.59-3.53) 10 0.76 (0.41-1.43) 4 0.66 (0.25-1.78) 14 0.73 (0.43-1.24)
Normal 88 1.00 (Ref) 291 1.00 (Ref) 1148 1.00 (Ref) 582 1.00 (Ref) 1730 1.00 (Ref)
High 6 4.82 (2.07-11.19) 5 1.02 (0.42-2.48) 25 1.30 (0.87-1.94) 12 1.19 (0.67-2.11) 37 1.26 (0.91-1.75)
Albumin-corrected calcium1
  (SD: 0.09 mmol/L) 1.26 (1.06-1.50) 1.08 (0.97-1.20) 1.07 (1.02-1.13) 1.04 (0.96-1.12) 1.06 (1.02-1.11)
Quartiles of albumin-corrected calcium1
  < 2.27 9 1.00 (Ref) 36 1.00 (Ref) 134 1.00 (Ref) 75 1.00 (Ref) 209 1.00 (Ref)
  2.27-2.32 20 1.46 (0.67-3.22) 67 1.20 (0.80-1.80) 250 1.17 (0.95-1.45) 133 1.15 (0.86-1.52) 383 1.16 (0.98-1.38)
  2.32-2.38 23 1.45 (0.66-3.15) 66 1.00 (0.66-1.51) 302 1.19 (0.97-1.47) 159 1.18 (0.89-1.55) 461 1.19 (1.01-1.40)
  ≥ 2.38 43 1.87 (0.89-3.91) 132 1.34 (0.92-1.96) 497 1.32 (1.08-1.60) 231 1.17 (0.89-1.53) 728 1.26 (1.08-1.48)
P-value for trend 0.09 0.15 0.007 0.34 0.006

All models are adjusted for age, SES, albumin (continuous), and Charlson comorbidity index.

1Not adjusted for albumin.

Wulaningsih et al.

Wulaningsih et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:663   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-663

Open Data