Table 4

Psychometric properties of final HLQ items * and scales
Difficulty Ordered Factor Loading R2
(95% CI) (95%CI)
1. Feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers
1 I have at least one healthcare provider who… 0.19 (0.15-0.24) Yes 0.84 (0.80- 0.87) 0.71
2 I have at least one healthcare provider I can… 0.10 (0.07-0.13) Yes 0.99 (0.97- 1.01) 0.98
3 I have the healthcare providers I need… 0.18 (0.15-0.22) Yes 0.77 (0.72- 0.81) 0.58
4 I can rely on at least one… 0.10 (0.08-0.13) Yes 0.91 (0.87- 0.94) 0.82
Model Fit – χ2WLSMV(2) = 10.15, p= 0.0063, CFI = 0.998, TLI = 0.995, RMSEA = 0.100, and WRMR = 0.367.
Composite reliability = 0.88 (0.86-0.90)
2. Having sufficient information to manage my health
1 I feel I have good information about health… 0.11 (0.08-0.14) Yes 0.73 (0.67-0.79) 0.54
2 I have enough information to help me deal… 0.21 (0.18-0.26) Yes 0.88 (0.85-0.91) 0.77
3 I am sure I have all the information I… 0.27 (0.22-0.31) Yes 0.98 (0.96-1.00) 0.96
4 I have all the information I need to 0.25 (0.21-0.30) Yes 0.93 (0.91-0.95) 0.86
Model Fit – χ2WLSMV(2) = 5.24, p= 0.0730, CFI = 1.000, TLI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.063, and WRMR = 0.337.
Composite reliability = 0.88 (0.87-0.90)
3. Actively managing my health
1 I spend quite a lot of time actively managing… 0.30 (0.25-0.34) Yes 0.79 (0.74-0.84) 0.63
2 I make plans for what I need to do to be… 0.15 (0.12-0.18) Yes 0.83 (0.79-0.87) 0.69
3 Despite other things in my life, I make time… 0.21 (0.17-0.25) Yes 0.91 (0.87-0.95) 0.82
4 I set my own goals about health and fitness 0.13 (0.10-0.17) Yes 0.72 (0.66-0.77) 0.52
5 There are things that I do regularly… 0.20 (0.16-0.24) Yes 0.89 (0.85-0.92) 0.78
Model Fit – χ2WLSMV(5) = 31.96, p<0.0001, CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.115, and WRMR = 0.775.
Composite reliability = 0.86 (0.84-0.88)
4. Social Support for health
1 I can get access to several people who… 0.16 (0.13-0.20) Yes 0.70 (0.64-0.75) 0.48
2 When I feel ill, the people around me really… 0.30 (0.26-0.35) Yes 0.74 (0.69-0.80) 0.55
3 If I need help, I have plenty of people I… 0.18 (0.14-0.22) Yes 0.88 (0.85-0.91) 0.77
4 I have at least one person… 0.19 (0.15-0.23) Yes 0.72 (0.67-0.77) 0.52
5 I have strong support from… 0.10 (0.08-0.14) Yes 0.89 (0.86-0.93) 0.79
Model Fit – χ2WLSMV(5) = 37.36, p<0.0001, CFI = 0.987, TLI = 0.975, RMSEA = 0.126, and WRMR = 0.925.
Composite reliability = 0.84 (0.81-0.86)
5. Appraisal of health information
1 I compare health information from different 0.18 (0.15-0.22) Yes 0.68 (0.62- 0.74) 0.46
2 When I see new information about health, I… 0.38 (0.34-0.43) Yes 0.73 (0.67- 0.79) 0.53
3 I always compare health information from… 0.34 (0.30-0.39) Yes 0.86 (0.81-0.90) 0.74
4 I know how to find out if the health… 0.30 (0.25-0.34) Yes 0.59 (0.51- 0.66) 0.34
5 I ask healthcare providers about the quality… 0.38 (0.33-0.43) Yes 0.62 (0.55-0.68) 0.38
Model Fit – χ2WLSMV(5) = 18.05, p= 0.0029, CFI = 0.990, TLI = 0.980, RMSEA = 0.080, and WRMR = 0.610
Composite reliability = 0.77 (0.74-0.81)
6. Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers
1 Make sure that healthcare providers understand… 0.23 (0.19-0.27) Yes 0.79 (0.75- 0.84) 0.63
2 Feel able to discuss your health concerns with a… 0.15 (0.11-0.18) Yes 0.88 (0.85- 0.90) 0.77
3 Have good discussions about your health… 0.18 (0.14-0.22) Yes 0.85 (0.82- 0.88) 0.72
4 Discuss things with healthcare providers… 0.23 (0.19-0.28) Yes 0.87 (0.84-0.90) 0.76
5 Ask healthcare providers questions to get… 0.24 (0.20-0.28) Yes 0.88 (0.85- 0.91) 0.77
Model Fit – χ2WLSMV(5) = 74.91, p<0.0001, CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.973, RMSEA = 0.185, and WRMR = 0.944.
Composite reliability = 0.90 (0.88-0.92)
7. Navigating the healthcare system
1 Find the right healthcare 0.19 (0.16-0.23) Yes 0.76 (0.71-0.80) 0.57
2 Get to see the healthcare providers I need to 0.07 (0.05-0.10) No 0.61 (0.54-0.68) 0.37
3 Decide which healthcare provider you need… 0.20 (0.17-0.24) Yes 0.92 (0.89-0.94) 0.84
4 Make sure you find the right place to get… 0.19 (0.16-0.23) Yes 0.94 (0.92-0.96) 0.88
5 Find out what healthcare services you are… 0.42 (0.37-0.47) Yes 0.77 (0.73-0.82) 0.60
6 Work out what is the best care for you 0.28 (0.24-0.33) Yes 0.80 (0.76-0.83) 0.63
Model Fit – χ2WLSMV(9) = 21.74, p= 0.0097, CFI = 0.998, TLI = 0.996, RMSEA = 0.058, and WRMR = 0.451.
Composite reliability = 0.88 (0.87-0.90)
8. Ability to find good health information
1 Find information about health problems 0.21 (0.17-0.25) Yes 0.85 (0.81-0.88) 0.72
2 Find health information from several… 0.27 (0.23-0.32) Yes 0.86 (0.83-0.89) 0.74
3 Get information about health so you are… 0.23 (0.19-0.27) Yes 0.87 (0.84-0.89) 0.75
4 Get health information in words you… 0.20 (0.17-0.24) Yes 0.81 (0.77-0.85) 0.66
5 Get health information by yourself 0.26 (0.22-0.30) Yes 0.84 (0.80-0.87) 0.70
Model Fit – χ2WLSMV(5) = 57.06, p<0.0001, CFI = 0.989, TLI = 0.977, RMSEA = 0.160, and WRMR = 0.820.
Composite reliability = 0.89 (0.87-0.91)
9. Understanding health information well enough to know what to do
1 Confidently fill medical forms in the correct… 0.13 (0.10-0.17) No 0.80 (0.75-0.84) 0.63
2 Accurately follow the instructions from… 0.08 (0.06-0.21) No 0.82 (0.77-0.87) 0.67
3 Read and understand written health… 0.15 (0.12-0.19) Yes 0.84 (0.81-0.88) 0.71
4 Read and understand all the information on… 0.16 (0.13-0.20) Yes 0.83 (0.79-0.87) 0.69
5 Understand what healthcare providers are… 0.14 (0.11-0.17) Yes 0.88 (0.85-0.92) 0.78
Model Fit – χ2WLSMV(5) = 35.70, p<0.0001, CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.123, and WRMR = 0.671
Composite reliability = 0.88 (0.86-0.90)

* Items are truncated. Full items are available from the authors.

Osborne et al.

Osborne et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:658   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-658

Open Data