Table 2

Description of the included studies
Reference Region Population SES Social capital Outcome Mediating/pathway model Moderating model
Kohen, Brooks-Gun, Leventhal, & Hertzman, 2002 Canada Children (4–5 y) Neighbourhood income, neighbourhood family structure, neighbourhood unemployment rate Neighbourhood cohesion (N items = 5, IR: α=0.87) Children’s receptive verbal ability + behaviour problems Model tested in the study, but no significant results found Model not tested in the study
Xue, Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn et al., 2005 USA, Chicago Children (6–12 y) Neighbourhood concentrated disadvantage, family income, maternal education and employment Neighbourhood collective efficacy: informal social control (N items = 5, IR: not reported) + social cohesion (N items = 5, IR: not reported), neighbourhood organisational participation (N items = 7, IR: not reported) Mental health problems (internalising problems) Neighbourhood concentrated disadvantage → neighbourhood collective efficacy → mental health problems Model not tested in the study
Caughy & O’Campo, 2006 USA, Baltimore African American children (3 – 4.5 y) Economic impoverishment: poverty rate, unemployment, vacant housing, single-headed families Parental psychological sense of community (N items = 10, IR: α=0.92), parental willingness to assist children in need (N items = not reported, IR: α=0.81) and stop acts of misbehaviour (N items = not reported, IR: α=0.85) Child cognitive competence Model tested in the study, but no significant results found Model not tested in the study
Drukker, Kaplan, Schneiders, Feron, & van Os, 2006 The Netherlands, Maastricht Adolescents (Age M wave 1=10.2 y, wave 2 = 13.5 y) Neighbourhood social disadvantage index (contains information on family structure, employment status, social benefits, ethnicity, voting behaviour and income). Collective efficacy: informal social control, social cohesion and trust (N items and IR not reported) Quality of life: self-esteem and satisfaction Model not tested in the study Model tested in the study, but no significant results found
Kohen, Leventhal, Dahinten, & McIntosh, 2008 Canada Children (4–5 y) Neighbourhood structural disadvantage: income, education, unemployment, family structure Neighbourhood cohesion (N items=5, IR not reported) Verbal ability + behaviour problems SES -> neighbourhood cohesion -> maternal depression -> punitive parenting -> behaviour problems Model not tested in the study
SES -> neighbourhood cohesion -> family functioning -> consistent parenting -> verbal ability
Caughy, Nettles & O'Campo, 2008 USA, Baltimore Children 6–7 y Neighbourhood concentrated economic disadvantage, parental educational attainment, parental employment status Neighbourhood potential for community involvement with children (N items=not reported, IR: α=0.78 (individual level) and 0.95 (neighbourhood. level), neighbourhood negative social climate (N items=not reported, IR: α=0.76) Child behaviour problems (internalising and externalising behaviour problems) Model not tested in the study Neighbourhood concentrated economic disadvantage X neighbourhood potential for community involvement with children
Karriker-Jaffe, Foshee, Ennett, & Suchindran, 2009 USA Rural adolescents (11–18 y) Neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage score: education, employment, economic resources Neighbourhood-level social organisation: neighbourhood social bonding (N items=4, IR: α=0.75), neighbourhood social control (N items=6, IR: α=0.91) Aggression trajectories Model tested in the study, but no significant results found Model tested in the study, but no significant results found
Odgers et al., 2009 England & Wales Children 5–10 y Neighbourhood deprivation versus affluence, family socio-economic disadvantage Neighbourhood collective efficacy (IR neighbourhood level: α=0.88): consists of informal social control (N items=5) + social cohesion (N items=5) Children’s antisocial behaviour: aggression + delinquency Model not tested in the study Neighbourhood deprivation versus affluence X neighbourhood collective efficacy
Total number of studies 8

y = years of age; M= Mean; IR= Internal reliability; N items = Number of items in scale.

Vyncke et al.

Vyncke et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:65   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-65

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