Table 3

General demographic characteristics, crude and adjusted odds ratios of S. haematobium by risk factors
Variable S. haematobium infected Crude Adjusted
No (%) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Location Urban 36/437 (8.2%) 1 1
Rural 509/1866 (27.3%) 4.17 (2.92-5.95) 4.70 (3.13-7.08)
Geographic part within the State Central 68/514 (13.2%) 1 1
Eastern 124/768 (16.1%) 1.26 (0.92-1.74) 1.02 (0.69-1.49)
Western 353/1020 (34.6%) 3.47 (2.61-4.62) 1.82 (1.27-2.59)
Age >12 ys 101/460 (22.0%) 1 Removed
8-12 ys 274/1177 (23.3%) 1.08 (0.83-1.40)
<8 ys 170/665 (25.6%) 1.22 (0.92-1.62)
Gender Female 154/727 (21.2%) 1 1
Male 391/1575 (24.8%) 1.23 (0.99-1.52) 1.25 (0.97-1.60)
Father’s education Above primary 56/308 (18.2%) 1 Removed
Primary 229/963 (23.8%) 1.40 (1.01-1.94)
Illiterate 260/1031 (25.2%) 1.52 (1.10-2.09)
Mother’s education Above primary 24/153 (15.7%) 1 Removed
Primary 139/653 (21.3%) 1.45 (0.91-2.34)
Illiterate 382/1496 (25.5%) 1.84 (1.17-2.89)
Father’s Occupation Indoor worker 240/1071 (22.4%) 1 1
Outdoor worker 305/1231 (24.8%) 1.14 (0.94-1.38) 0.80 (0.64-1.00)
Mother’s Occupation Indoor worker 36/203 (17.7%) 1 Removed
Housewife 342/1467 (23.3%) 1.41 (0.96-2.10)
Farmer 167/632 (26.4%) 1.67 (1.12-2.49)
Type of house Fixed 103/495 (20.8%) 1 Removed
Cottage 442/1807 (24.5%) 1.23 (0.97-1.57)
Source of water Closed * 284/1579 (18.0%) 1 1
Opened 261/723 (36.1%) 2.58 (2.11-3.14) 2.96 (2.34-3.74)
Hand washing facility at school Available 105/606 (17.3%) 1 1
Not available 440/1696 (25.9%) 1.67 (1.32-2.12) 1.51 (1.15-1.99)
Latrine at school Available 247/1062 (23.3%) 1 Not included
Not available 298/1240 (24.0%) 1.04 (0.86-1.27)
Distance from school to nearest open water source ≥ 1 Km 9/142 (6.3%) 1 32.50 (12.89-81.95)
< 1 Km 536/2160 (24.8%) 4.88 (2.47-9.65)
Play/bath in open water No 152/833 (18.2%) 1 1
Yes 393/1469 (26.8%) 1.64 (1.33-2.02) 1.48 (1.15-1.89)
Frequency of open water contact >weekly 306/1660 (18.4%) 1 1
Daily 239/642 (37.2%) 2.62 (2.14-3.21) 3.92 (3.06-5.02)
Health advocacy at school Yes 115/642 (17.9%) 1 Removed
No 430/1660 (%) 1.60 (1.27-2.02)
Health facility in the same village Yes 277/1349 (20.5%) 1 1
No 268/953 (28.1%) 1.51 (1.23-1.84) 1.53 (1.21-1.93)
Knowledge about schistosomiasis Yes 210/941 (21.8%) 1 1
No 335/1361 (26.7%) 1.45 (1.19-1.76) 1.48 (1.18-1.86)
History of schistosomiasis treatment No 462/2123 (21.8%) 1 1
Yes 83/179 (46.4%) 3.11 (2.28-4.24) 3.37 (2.53-4.51)

* Pipe/hand pump.

Abou-Zeid et al.

Abou-Zeid et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:643   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-643

Open Data