Table 5

Results from the logistic regression analysis identifying associations between parenting practices and the odds of sexual risk-taking for FEMALES (n = 227)
Variable Odds ratio (95% Confidence Intervals)
Sexually active (n = 227) Multiple partnerships Consistent use of contraceptive© Occasional concurrent sexual partners
(n = 227) (n = 189) (n = 227)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Parenting dimensions (assessment at the time of the survey)
Quality of parent/child relationships 0.52* 0.54* 0.64* 0.60* 0.90 0.88 0.51* 0.46**
(0.26-1.02) (0.28-1.04) (0.36-1.11) (0.34-1.05) (0.54-1.50) (0.52-1.48) (0.26-1.02) (0.23-0.88)
Knowledge of out-of-home activities 1.04 1.03 1.31* 1.32* 1.09 1.10 0.92 0.91
(0.79-1.35) (0.78-1.34) (0.94-1.81) (0.95-1.81) (0.85-1.40) (0.86-1.40) (0.68-1.24) (0.67-1.23)
Approval of out-of-home activities 1.35* 1.36* 0.90 0.90 1.01 0.99 1.15 1.12
(0.98-1.87) (0.98-1.86) (0.63-1.30) (0.63-1.29) (0.73-1.36) (0.72-1.36) (0.74-1.78) (0.74-1.70)
Parent–child communication on sexual issues 1.23 1.24 1.21 1.18 0.91 0.89 1.22 1.20
(0.91-1.64) (0.92-1.67) (0.86-1.70) (0.83-1.67) (0.67-1.21) (0.65-1.21) (0.79-1.86) (0.79-1.81)
Parenting dimensions during early adolescence (assessment at age 12)
Quality of parent/child relationships 1.32 126 0.93 0.99 0.64 0.66 1.35 1.54
(0.65-2.67) (0.63-2.51) (0.46-1.87) (0.48-2.06) (0.33-1.22) (0.34-1.26) (0.60-3.02) (0.68-3.48)
Knowledge of out-of-home activities 1.40** 1.39** 0.87 0.88 0.99 0.99 0.97 0.99
(1.03-1.89) (1.01-1.89) (0.61-1.25) (0.61-1.28) (0.74-1.33) (0.74-1.32) (0.67-1.39) (0.67-1.46)
Approval of out-of-home activities 0.82 0.79 0.82 0.83 0.94 0.95 0.70 0.73
(0.59-1.13) (0.57-1.11) (0.54-1.22) (0.55-1.24) (0.67-1.32) (0.67-1.33) (0.46-1.08) (0.47-1.12)
Parent–child communication on sexual issues 0.86 0.88 0.77 0.76 0.88 0.88 0.66 0.63
(0.61-1.21) (0.61-1.22) (0.45-1.31) (0.45-1.27) (0.64-1.21) (0.64-1.21) (0.34-1.27) (0.34-1.15)
Early sexual debut (sexual initiation by age 15) 0.63 2.03* 1.29 2.69*
(0.28-1.39) (0.85-4.87) (0.59-2.84) (0.92-7.82)
Family structure (ref: Both biological parents)
Biological mother only 0.81 0.83 1.26 1.22 0.78 0.75 0.18* 0.17
(0.24-2.68) (0.25-2.74) (0.31-5.08) (0.29-5.03) (0.25-2.40) (0.24-2.30) (0.02-1.37) (0.02-1.39)
Biological father only 3.49 3.64 1.80 1.88 0.33* 0.32* 5.92** 6.73**
(0.66-8.41) (0.64-8.44) (0.31-10.12) (0.32-10.78) (0.09-1.09) (0.09-1.07) (1.38-5.43) (1.57-8.89)
Other relatives or unrelated co residents 2.29 2.30 1.19 1.11 0.55 0.53 0.53 0.50
(0.65-8.01) (0.66-7.91) (0.36-3.90) (0.32-3.77) (0.20-1.48) (0.19-1.46) (0.19-2.20) (0.11-2.10)
Uncorrelated residents 1.55 1.51 3.29 3.91 0.85 0.91 0.63 0.78
(0.39-6.10) (0.36-6.23) (0.79-9.70) (0.87-9.42) (0.24-2.96) (0.25-3.21) (0.15-2.60) (0.16-3.81)
Parent/guardian socioeconomic characteristics
Parent/guardian has a primary education (ref: No) 1.34 1.36 1.47 1.55 0.49 0.50 0.81 0.83
(0.39-4.59) (0.38-4.91) (0.31-6.81) (0.29-8.24) (0.15-1.58) (0.15-1.60) (0.16-4.05) (0.14-4.69)
Parent/guardian has a paid job (ref: No) 0.73 0.72 0.60 0.56 1.21 1.22 0.52 0.48
(0.33-1.56) (0.33-1.55) (0.24-1.50) (0.21-1.42) (0.57-2.54) (0.58-2.58) (0.18-1.48) (0.16-1.42)
Parent/guardian is married (ref: No) 0.64 0.66 0.62 0.58 1.48 1.47 0.78 0.77
(0.18-2.25) (0.17-2.39) (0.19-2.04) (0.17-1.98) (0.55-3.99) (0.54-3.96) (0.22-2.72) (0.21-2.78)
Respondent’ age (ref: 15–19) 0.43** 0.38** 1.61 1.79 1.12 1.17 1.08 1.26
(0.19-0.92) (0.17-0.84) (0.64-4.05) (0.70-4.51) (0.53-2.38) (0.55-2.48) (0.37-3.13) (0.42-3.71)
Currently attending school (ref: No) 2.25* 2.27* 1.15 1.11 0.36*** 0.35*** 2.15 2.13
(0.96-5.25) (0.99-5.21) (0.47-2.78) (0.46-2.65) (0.17-0.71) (0.17-0.70) (0.79-5.77) (0.80-5.69)
Religious affiliation (ref: Christian) 0.73 0.75 0.26 0.22 1.16 1.14 0.52 0.41
(0.07-7.43) (0.07-8.08) (0.03-1.67) (0.03-1.35) (0.24-5.49) (0.23-5.49) (0.04-6.11) (0.04-3.92)

Notes: At the time of the survey ©Among those who had at least one sexual partner.

All scales are scored such that a higher value indicates higher level of the construct.

Model 1: Parenting variables + controls for family structure, parent/guardian socioeconomic characteristics, age, schooling status and religious affiliation;

Model 2: Parenting variables + controls for early sexual debut, family structure, parent/guardian socioeconomic characteristics, age, schooling status and religious affiliation.

Level of significance: * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.001.

Sidze and Defo

Sidze and Defo BMC Public Health 2013 13:616   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-616

Open Data