Table 4

Results from the logistic regression analysis identifying associations between parenting practices and the odds of sexual risk-taking for MALES (n = 220)
Variable Odds ratio (95% Confidence Intervals)
Sexually active (n = 220) Multiple partnerships (n = 220) Consistent use of contraceptive© (n = 192) Occasional concurrent sexual partners (n = 220)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Parenting dimensions (assessment at the time of the survey)
Quality of parent/child relationships 0.67 0.67 0.63** 0.64** 0.65 0.66 0.79 0.81
(0.31-1.43) (0.32-1.39) (0.40-0.98) (0.41-0.99) (0.39-1.08) (0.39-1.09) (0.52-1.19) (0.53-1.21)
Knowledge of out-of-home activities 0.77* 0.78* 1.12 1.08 1.01 1.01 1.04 1.02
(0.57-1.04) (0.58-1.05) (0.91-1.39) (0.86-1.36) (0.78-1.30) (0.78-1.29) (0.84-1.27) (0.82-1.25)
Approval of out-of-home activities 0.81 0.81 0.98 0.98 0.99 1.01 1.12 1.12
(0.55-1.19) (0.56-1.19) (0.77-1.22) (0.78-1.23) (0.77-1.28) (0.77-1.28) (0.89-1.41) (0.89-1.41)
Parent–child communication on sexual issues 1.33 1.33 1.25* 1.27* 0.88 0.88 1.24* 1.25*
(0.83-2.11) (0.83-2.12) (0.96-1.62) (0.97-1.64) (0.67-1.15) (0.67-1.15) (0.96-1.60) (0.97-1.61)
Parenting dimensions during early adolescence (assessment at age 12)
Quality of parent/child relationships 1.24 1.24 0.99 1.00 0.84 0.84 1.09 1.10
(0.64-2.38) (0.64-2.37) (0.60-1.63) (0.61-1.65) (0.51-1.37) (0.51-1.37) (0.69-1.72) (0.69-1.74)
Knowledge of out-of-home activities 1.18 1.19 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.83 0.84
(0.82-1.70) (0.82-1.70) (0.71-1.16) (0.72-1.17) (0.71-1.22) (0.72-1.23) (0.66-1.04) (0.67-1.05)
Approval of out-of-home activities 1.17 1.17 0.96 0.96 1.12 1.13 0.92 0.92
(0.79-1.72) (0.79-1.72) (0.74-1.24) (0.74-1.24) (0.84-1.48) (0.84-1.50) (0.72-1.18) (0.71-1.19)
Parent–child communication on sexual issues 1.46 1.46 1.01 0.99 0.93 0.93 0.95 0.95
(0.59-3.64) (0.58-3.66) (0.67-1.51) (0.65-1.51) (0.63-1.36) (0.63-1.36) (0.67-1.36) (0.66-1.35)
Early sexual debut (sexual initiation by age 15) 0.93 1.72 1.13 1.36
(0.41-2.13) (0.88-3.37) (0.54-2.33) (0.74-2.49)
Family structure (ref: Both biological parents)
Biological mother only 1.67 1.68 1.93 1.96 0.62 0.61 1.21 1.22
(0.29-9.37) (0.29-9.54) (0.71-5.26) (0.68-5.61) (0.18-2.00) (0.18-1.99) (0.46-3.18) (0.45-3.24)
Biological father only 2.12 2.12 3.21* 3.27 * 1.14 1.12 3.26* 3.26*
(0.30-4.75) (0.29-5.07) (0.77-3.24) (0.82-2.99) (0.27-4.74) (0.27-4.64) (0.87-2.20) (0.88-2.08)
Other relatives or unrelated coresidents 3.78* 3.78* 0.69 0.62 1.77 1.74 1.03 0.98
(0.76-7.90) (0.80-7.75) (0.27-1.74) (0.23-1.67) (0.62-5.08) (0.60-5.06) (0.44-2.37) (0.42-2.31)
Uncorrelated residents 0.71 0.71 2.56* 2.40* 0.62 0.60 1.62 1.55
(0.14-3.67) (0.13-3.73) (0.99-6.61) (0.92-6.24) (0.18-1.81) (0.20-1.80) (0.65-4.04) (0.62-3.89)
Parent/guardian socioeconomic characteristics
Parent/guardian has a primary education (ref: No) 0.72 0.72 0.38* 0.34** 0.86 0.84 0.75 0.72
(0.13-3.77) (0.13-3.90) (0.13-1.05) (0.12-0.97) (0.23-3.09) (0.23-3.03) (0.28-1.98) (0.27-1.88)
Parent/guardian has a paid job (ref: No) 0.85 0.85 1.29 1.37 1.16 1.17 1.34 1.37
(0.31-2.34) (0.31-2.35) (0.56-2.97) (0.59-3.19) (0.48-2.83) (0.48-2.85) (0.64-2.80) (0.66-2.86)
Parent/guardian is married (ref: No) 1.42 1.41 1.50 1.52 0.54 0.54 0.83 0.83
(0.31-6.47) (0.31-6.48) (0.50-4.41) (0.51-4.49) (0.15-1.88) (0.15-1.87) (0.31-2.18) (0.31-2.15)
Respondent’ age (ref: 15–19) 0.96 0.95 2.02** 2.21** 0.82 0.83 1.62 1.71*
(0.41-2.29) (0.40-2.26) (1.06-3.83) (1.13-4.29) (0.40-1.67) (0.40-1.71) (0.88-2.97) (0.92-3.16)
Currently attending school (ref: No) 0.33** 0.32** 0.60 0.63 0.65 0.66 0.57* 0.59*
(0.11-0.98) (0.10-1.00) (0.28-1.29) (0.29-1.36) (0.28-1.47) (0.39-1.09) (0.28-1.11) (0.30-1.16)
Religious affiliation (ref: Christian) 0.68 0.69 1.20 1.17 0.97 0.97 1.26 1.23
(0.15-3.13) (0.15-3.11) (0.45-3.21) (0.44-3.10) (0.38-2.47) (0.38-2.43) (0.55-2.88) (0.53-2.82)

Notes: At the time of the survey ©Among those who had at least one sexual partner.

All scales are scored such that a higher value indicates higher level of the construct.

Model 1: Parenting variables + controls for family structure, parent/guardian socioeconomic characteristics, age, schooling status and religious affiliation;

Model 2: Parenting variables + controls for early sexual debut, family structure, parent/guardian socioeconomic characteristics, age, schooling status and religious affiliation.

Level of significance: * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.001.

Sidze and Defo

Sidze and Defo BMC Public Health 2013 13:616   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-616

Open Data