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Rice-eating pattern and the risk of metabolic syndrome especially waist circumference in Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

Younjhin Ahn1, Seon-Joo Park1, Hye-kyoung Kwack1, Mi Kyung Kim2, Kwang-Pil Ko3 and Sung Soo Kim1*

Author affiliations

1 Division of Epidemiology and Health Index, Center for Genome Science, National Institute of Health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea

2 Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea

3 Department of Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, South Korea

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Citation and License

BMC Public Health 2013, 13:61  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-61

Published: 22 January 2013



Metabolic syndrome poses a serious health threat in Asian countries. Rice is a staple food in Korea, and carbohydrate intake is associated with the risk of MetS. We hypothesized that various rice-eating patterns in a carbohydrate-based diet would have different effects on the risk of MetS.


Participants were 26,006 subjects enrolled in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study between 2004 and 2006. They were classified into four dietary patterns - white rice, rice with beans, rice with multi-grains, and mixed based on their food frequency questionnaire responses. We compared metabolic risk traits according to the rice-eating patterns.


Nutrients consumption and the presence of MetS risk factors differed according to rice-eating patterns. In men odds ratio(OR) for central obesity was slightly elevated in mixed group(1.18). In women, the risk for central obesity and abnormal fasting glucose were lower in the rice with beans group (adjusted OR =0.79, 0.83 respectively) and central obesity in rice with multi-grains(adjusted OR=0.91) than the white rice group. In postmenopausal women, ORs for central obesity (0.78) and abnormal fasting glucose (0.75) in the rice with beans group and ORs for central obesity (0.83), abnormal HDL-cholesterol (0.87) and MetS(0.85) in the rice with multi-grains group was lower than those in white rice group. In premenopausal women, the risk for central obesity (OR=0.77) was reduced in the rice with beans group.


The risk for MetS was lower in the rice with beans and rice with multi-grains groups compared with the white rice group, particularly in postmenopausal women.

Rice; Beans; Multi-grains; Metabolic syndrome (MetS); Postmenopausal women