Table 2

Adjusted associations of using a condom at last sex for men and women by sub-Saharan African Region
East Africa Southern Africa
(Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania) (Lesotho, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe)
Men Women Men Women
n = 12,772 n = 16,032 n = 11,740 n = 12,197
AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Age, per year 0.97 (0.96-0.98) 0.96 (0.95-0.97) 0.98 (0.98-0.99) 0.99 (0.98-0.99)
Marital status
  Married/cohabitating vs. unmarried (ref) 0.36 (0.30-0.43) 0.37 (0.29-0.46) 0.28 (0.24-0.32) 0.41 (0.32-0.53)
Education (ref: No schooling)
  High school or > 2.25 (1.74-2.91) 2.63 (2.06-3.37) 1.92 (1.56-2.37) 2.04 (1.58-2.65)
  Primary 1.33 (1.05-1.69) 1.53 (1.24-1.89) 1.29 (1.05-1.58) 1.44 (1.12-1.87)
Residence
  Urban vs. rural (ref) 1.37 (1.18-1.59) 1.36 (1.16-1.61) 1.09 (0.96-1.23) 1.04 (0.90-1.20)
Wealth index 1.20 (1.14-1.27) 1.17 (1.10-1.24) 1.18 (1.13-1.24) 1.25 (1.18-1.32)
Country
  Kenya (East) / Lesotho (South) 1.92 (1.62-2.27) 0.99 (0.81-1.22) 2.23 (1.96-2.55) -
  Tanzania (East) / Swaziland (South) 1.61 (1.38-1.88) 1.46 (1.24-1.72) 2.00 (1.75-2.25) 2.27 (1.99-2.61)
  Rwanda (East) / Zimbabwe (South) 0.80 (0.63-1.01) 0.61 (0.47-0.80) 1.06 (0.94-1.20) 0.56 (0.48-0.66)
  Mozambique (East) (ref) / Zambia (South) (ref) - - - -
Knows condoms prevent HIV
  Yes vs. no (ref) 1.84 (1.56-2.18) 1.71 (1.43-2.05) 1.44 (1.26-1.65) 1.48 (1.25-1.76)
Sex with non-spousal, non-cohabitating partner(s) in prior year
  Yes vs. no (ref) 4.95 (4.15-5.91) 4.01 (3.16-5.09) 1.89 (1.63-2.17) 2.63 (2.03-3.40)
Male partner or both were drunk during last sex
  Yes vs. no (ref) 0.76 (0.48-1.19) 0.83 (0.51-1.36) 0.84 (0.72-0.99) 0.78 (.59-1.02)
Partner type
  Casual vs. steady (ref) 1.16 (0.96-1.40) 1.13 (0.79-1.63) 1.00 (0.80-1.26) 1.22 (0.74-2.01)
HIV test results
  HIV positive vs. HIV negative (ref) 2.43 (1.97-3.01) 2.08 (1.74-2.48) 1.53 (1.36-1.72) 1.67 (1.48-1.88)
Interaction
Drunk x partner type 1.74 (1.01-3.00) 1.79 (0.67-4.75) 1.57 (0.95-2.54) 0.97 (0.26-3.61)

Note: AOR adjusted odds ratio; bold text denotes statistically significant findings at p < .05,p < .10. Estimates are adjusted for all variables and interactions listed in this table. Country comparisons are within each region. For the female sample there were only 3 countries for comparison within Southern Africa since the Lesotho female data set did not contain data regarding alcohol consumption during last sex.

Kiene and Subramanian

Kiene and Subramanian BMC Public Health 2013 13:583   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-583

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